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Objective—To determine the pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium after IM and SC administration in green iguanas.

Animals—6 male and 4 female adult green iguanas.

Procedure—In a crossover design, 5 iguanas received a single dose of ceftiofur sodium (5 mg/kg) IM, and 5 iguanas received the same dose SC. Blood samples were taken at 0, 20, and 40 minutes and 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after administration. After a 10-week washout period, each iguana was given the same dose via the reciprocal administration route, and blood was collected in the same fashion. Ceftiofur free-acid equivalents were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography.

Results—The first phase intercepts were significantly different between the 2 administration routes. Mean maximum plasma concentration was significantly higher with the IM (28.6 ± 8.0 µg/mL) than the SC (18.6 ± 8.3 µg/mL) administration route. There were no significant differences between terminal halflives (harmonic mean via IM route, 15.7 ± 4.7 hours; harmonic mean via SC route, 19.7 ± 6.7 hours) and mean areas under the curve measured to the last time point (IM route, 11,722 ± 7,907 µg·h/mL; SC route, 12,143 ± 9,633 µg·h/mL). Ceftiofur free-acid equivalent concentrations were maintained ≥ 2 µg/mL for > 24 hours via both routes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A suggested dosing schedule for ceftiofur sodium in green iguanas for microbes susceptible at > 2 µg/mL would be 5 mg/kg, IM or SC, every 24 hours. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1278–1282)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate the effect of oral administration of melatonin on clinical signs, tumor size, and serum steroid hormone concentrations in ferrets with adrenocortical disease.

Design—Noncontrolled clinical trial.

Animals—10 adult ferrets with clinical signs of adrenocortical disease (confirmed via serum steroid hormone concentration assessments).

Procedures—Melatonin (0.5 mg) was administered orally to ferrets once daily for 1 year. At 4-month intervals, a complete physical examination; abdominal ultrasonographic examination (including adrenal gland measurement); CBC; serum biochemical analyses; and assessment of serum estradiol, androstenedione, and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were performed. Serum prolactin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations were evaluated at the first, second, and last examinations, and serum cortisol concentration was evaluated at the first and last examinations.

Results—Daily oral administration of melatonin greatly affected clinical signs of adrenocortical disease in ferrets; changes included hair regrowth, decreased pruritus, increased activity level and appetite, and decreased vulva or prostate size. Mean width of the abnormally large adrenal glands was significantly increased after the 12-month treatment period. Recurrence of clinical signs was detected in 6 ferrets at the 8-month evaluation. Compared with pretreatment values, serum 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and prolactin concentrations were significantly increased and decreased after 12 months, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that melatonin is a useful, easily administered, palliative treatment to decrease clinical signs associated with adrenocortical disease in ferrets, and positive effects of daily treatment were evident for at least an 8-month period. Oral administration of melatonin did not decrease adrenal gland tumor growth in treated ferrets.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association