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  • Author or Editor: Kazumi Sasai x
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Summary

To study increase of the Salmonella population in the cecum of chickens infected with Eimeria te-nella, changes in mannose residues on the cecal mucosa were investigated. Inhibition of S typhimurium adherence to the cecum by a 2% carbohydrate (d-mannose, d-galactose, l-fucose, α-methyl- d-glucoside) in phosphate-buffered saline solution was examined. Only d-mannose had inhibitory effects. Whereas d-galactose had somewhat enhancing effects on adherence of S typhimurium to the cecal mucosa of uninfected germ-free chickens. In infected and uninfected chickens, d-mannose inhibited adherence of Styphimurium. d-Mannose significantly (P< 0.05) increased adherence of Bacteroides sp. In infected and uninfected chickens, d-mannose did not have any effect on adherence of Clostridium perfringens and Bifidobacterium thermophilum. Under microscopic observation, only concanavalin A and Lens culinaris agglutinin, of 8 lectins examined, were recognized as lectin-positive staining lines or spots in the cecal mucosa, indicating presence of mannose residues on the cecal mucosa. In E tenella-infected chickens, lectin-positive staining was seen strongly on the coarse surface of damaged cells and at the bottom of the crypts. These results indicate that coccidial infection may induce increase of mannose residues on the intestinal surface and allow adhesion of more salmonellae to the intestine.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate outcome of limb fracture repair in rabbits.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 139 client-owned rabbits with limb fractures treated between 2007 and 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for information on fracture location, fracture treatment, and time to fracture healing.

RESULTS 25 rabbits had fractures involving the distal aspects of the limbs (ie, metacarpal or metatarsal bones, phalanges, and calcaneus or talus). Fractures were treated in 23 of these 25 rabbits (external coaptation, n = 17; external skeletal fixation, 4; and intramedullary pinning, 2) and healed in all 23, with a median healing time of 28 days (range, 20 to 45 days). One hundred ten rabbits had long bone fractures, and fractures were treated in 100 of the 110 (external skeletal fixation, n = 89; bone plating, 1; intramedullary pinning, 3; and external coaptation, 7). The percentage of fractures that healed was significantly lower for open (14/18) than for closed (26/26) tibial fractures and was significantly lower for femoral (19/26) and treated humeral (4/6) fractures than for radial (23/24) or closed tibial (26/26) fractures. Micro-CT was used to assess fracture realignment during external skeletal fixator application and to evaluate fracture healing.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prognosis for rabbits with limb fractures was good, with fractures healing in most rabbits following fracture repair (109/123). Micro-CT was useful in assessing fracture realignment and evaluating fracture healing.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize bone fractures and the usefulness of micro-CT for imaging fractures in pet rabbits.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—210 client-owned rabbits with bone fractures.

Procedures—Medical records of rabbits evaluated for bone fractures from 2007 through 2013 were examined. Information was collected on signalment and nature of fractures, and radiographic and micro-CT images of fractures were reviewed.

Results—Almost half (n = 95 [47.7%]) of fractures were in rabbits < 3 years old. Accidental fall was the most common cause. Vertebral fracture was the most common type of fracture with a nonneoplastic cause (n = 46 [23.2%]) and was most common in the L4-L7 region. The tibia was the most common site for limb fracture among all fractures with a nonneoplastic cause (45 [22.7%]). Twelve (5.7%) fractures had a neoplastic cause, and 7 of these were associated with metastatic uterine adenocarcinoma. Females were significantly more likely to have a fracture caused by neoplasia than were males. Compared with radiography, micro-CT provided more detailed fracture information, particularly for complicated fractures or structures (eg, skull, pelvic, vertebral, and comminuted limb fractures).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings were useful for understanding the nature of fractures in pet rabbits and supported the use of micro-CT versus radiography for fracture detection and evaluation.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association