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Abstract

Objective

To determine blood protein concentration, immunoglobulin concentration, and lymphocyte profiles in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) seropositive, naturally infected horses without clinical signs of disease.

Animals

26 clinically normal seropositive horses, 6 febrile ponies with experimentally induced EIA, and 52 clinically normal seronegative horses and ponies.

Procedure

Serum and EDTA-anticoagulated blood were obtained from all horses and ponies, and total serum protein and albumin concentrations, immunoglobulin concentrations, and blood lymphocyte subset counts were determined.

Results

Compared with seronegative horses, EIAV seropositive inapparent carrier horses had no significant difference in serum reverse transcriptase activity, PCV, or platelet count. Inapparent carrier horses had increased plasma total solids and serum globulin concentrations and decreased serum albumin concentration and albumin-to-globulin ratio. Total serum immunoglobulin and serum IgM concentrations were increased. In-apparent carrier horses had significantly decreased percentages of CD5+ and CD4+ blood lymphocytes.

Conclusions

Serum protein and lymphocyte subset changes in EIAV-infected inapparent carrier horses are consistent with immune activation or chronic inflammation, both of which may, in part, be the result of virus-induced polyclonal B-cell activation.

Clinical Relevance

EIAV seropositive horses have immune-related abnormalities consistent with ongoing viral activity regardless of the duration they have been infected, even when the usual signs of disease (anemia, fever, weight loss) are not apparent. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1009–1015)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate a method for detecting thiazole orange-positive (TO+, reticulated) platelets in equine blood, using flow cytometry.

Animals

16 healthy, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV)-negative horses and ponies; 9 thrombocytopenic, ElAV-positive horses and ponies; and 2 thrombocytopenic, ElAV-negative horses.

Procedure

Blood from healthy and thrombocytopenic horses was collected by jugular venipuncture. Appropriate sample requirement and incubation time for the assay were evaluated, using blood anticoagulated with EDTA or sodium citrate, or platelet-rich plasma in sodium citrate. The sample of blood or platelet-rich plasma was incubated with thiazole orange, and flow cytometric analysis was performed. Percentage of circulating TO+ platelets was determined from fluorescence (FL-1) logarithmic histograms.

Results

Healthy ponies (n = 9) had 1.28 to 2.83% (mean ± SD, 2.03 ± 0.50%) and horses (n = 7) had 0.9 to 3.44% (2.12 ± 1.14%) TO+ platelets in circulation. Thrombocytopenic ponies (n = 7) had 11.14 to 48.41 % (26.51 ± 11.99%) and thrombocytopenic horses (n = 4) had 2.33 to 8.52% (6.19 ± 2.68%) TO+ platelets in circulation. Mean platelet counts for the thrombocytopenic ponies and horses were 24,400 ± 20,500 and 39,300 ± 13,500 platelets/μl, respectively (reference range, 94,000 to 232,000 platelets/μl).

Conclusion

Thiazole orange-positive platelets can be detected in equine blood and percentages of TO+ platelets are increased in thrombocytopenic horses.

Clinical Relevance

Enumeration of TO+ platelets may prove to be a helpful noninvasive clinical measurement of bone marrow platelet production and aid in the assessment of platelet kinetics in thrombocytopenic horses. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1092–1096)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research