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  • Author or Editor: Kathryn L. Good x
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Abstract

Objective—To quantitatively and qualitatively compare electroretinography (ERG) recordings in awake, sedated, and anesthetized dogs.

Animals—Six 6-month-old Beagles.

Procedures—A brief ERG protocol for dogs was used. Following 1-minute and subsequent 5-minute dark adaptation, mixed rod-cone responses were recorded bilaterally with a handheld multispecies ERG device with dogs in each of 3 states of consciousness: awake, sedated (dexmedetomidine and butorphanol), and anesthetized (atropine and hydromorphone, followed by propofol and midazolam and anesthetic maintenance with isoflurane). Low- and high-frequency noise levels were quantified via Fourier analysis, and the effect of consciousness state on signal amplitude, implicit time, and noise was analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA. In addition, 13 veterinary ophthalmologists who were unaware of the dogs’ consciousness states subjectively graded the ERG recording quality, and scores for each tracing were compared.

Results—ERG amplitudes were highest in awake dogs and lowest in anesthetized dogs. Implicit times were shortest in awake dogs and longest in anesthetized dogs. Differences in b-wave amplitudes and a-wave implicit times were significant. Neither low- nor high-frequency noise levels differed significantly among consciousness states. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified among observers’ scores assigned to ERG tracings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthesia and sedation resulted in significant attenuation and delay of ERG responses in dogs. Chemical restraint of dogs had no consistently significant effect on low- or high-frequency noise levels or on observer perception of signal quality.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare aesthesiometer-determined corneal sensitivity between diabetic and nondiabetic dogs and to investigate the correlation between corneal sensitivity and duration of diabetes or status of glycemic control, as estimated by use of glycated blood protein concentrations.

Animals—23 diabetic and 29 nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs.

Procedure—A Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer was used to measure corneal touch threshold (CTT) in 5 corneal regions of each dog. At the time of ocular examination, duration of diabetes mellitus was estimated from the history, and blood was drawn for assessment of blood glycosylated hemoglobin and serum fructosamine concentrations.

Results—Median CTT for central, nasal, dorsal, temporal, and ventral corneal regions in nondiabetic dogs (1.6, 2.3, 2.8, 2.8, and 5.1 g/mm2, respectively) was significantly lower than in diabetic dogs (2.8, 4.0, 5.1, 5.1, and 6.6 g/mm2, respectively). Median regional CTT in diabetic dogs was not significantly correlated with estimated duration of diabetes mellitus or blood glycated protein concentrations. No significant difference was found in regional CTT between eyes of normoglycemic dogs with unilateral cataracts.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Diabetic dogs have significantly reduced corneal sensitivity in all regions, compared with nondiabetic normoglycemic dogs. Regional variation in corneal sensitivity is similar in diabetic and normoglycemic dogs. Neither glycemic control nor duration of diabetes, as estimated, is significantly correlated with corneal hyposensitivity. Corneal nerve dysfunction may be associated with recurrent or nonhealing ulcers in diabetic dogs for which no other underlying cause can be found. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:7–11)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research