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Abstract

Objective—To describe ultrasonographic appearance of the liver, small and large intestines, and omasum in cows with right displacement of the abomasum (RDA) and with abomasal volvulus (AV) and to determine whether RDA and AV can be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.

Animals—17 cows with RDA, 9 cows with AV, and 10 healthy control cows.

Procedures—A linear transducer was used to examine the abomasum, liver, omasum, and small and large intestines from the right side.

Results—The liver was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV, compared with control cows. In 9 cows with RDA or AV, the liver could not be imaged. The small intestine was imaged less frequently in cows with RDA or AV than in control cows; in cows with AV, the small intestine could not be imaged in the 8th, 9th, or 10th intercostal space. The large intestine was imaged less frequently in the 11th and 12th intercostal spaces and the cranial region of the flank in cows with RDA or AV. The omasum was also imaged less frequently in the 8th and 9th intercostal spaces in cows with RDA or AV. Cows with RDA or AV could not be differentiated on the basis of ultrasonographic findings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with control cows, cows with RDA and AV had changes in positioning and therefore extent of ultrasonographic imaging of the liver, omasum, and small and large intestines; however, these findings were not useful in differentiating between cows with RDA and AV.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings; treatment; and outcome of cattle with mesenteric torsion (MT).

ANIMALS

61 cattle with MT between November 1, 1986, and December 31, 2019.

METHODS

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Results were compared for cattle that survived versus did not survive to hospital discharge.

RESULTS

All cattle had abnormal demeanor. The most common clinical signs were tachycardia (80.3% [49/61]), tachypnea (65.0% [39/60]), and lower rectal temperature (59.3% [35/59]). Signs of colic occurred in 65.6% (40/61). The most common gastrointestinal findings were an empty or almost empty rectum (100% [59/59]), reduced or absent motility of the small intestines (96.6% [57/59]) or rumen (93.2% [55/59]), positive ballottement and/or percussion and simultaneous auscultation on the right side (91.7% [55/60]), and dilated small (49.2% [29/59]) and large intestines (spiral colon and/or cecum, 44.1% [26/59]) detected during transrectal examination. The most common laboratory findings were acidosis (82.6%, [38/46]) hypermagnesemia (74.5% [35/47]). Ultrasonographic findings included reduced or absent small intestinal motility (86.7% [26/30]) and dilated small intestines (83.8% [31/37]). The spiral colon was dilated in 32.4% (12/37) of the cattle. Eighty-two percent (50/61) of the cattle underwent right flank laparotomy and the MT could be reduced in 34.4% (21/61). Twenty-three percent (14/61) of the cattle survived to hospital discharge, and 77.0% (47/61) were euthanized before hospital discharge.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dilated small and large intestines (spiral colon, cecum) combined with a severely abnormal demeanor and tachycardia are characteristic findings in cows with MT. Immediate surgical treatment is paramount.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

3 neonatal female calves (ages, < 1 to 4 days) were examined because of mandibular trauma.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination indicated that each calf had an open fracture of the mandibular pars incisiva (rostral mandibular fracture) with ventral displacement of the incisors at the affected region. Oral radiographs were obtained for 1 calf and revealed that 5 incisors were fractured at the level of the apical dental buds.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Each calf was anesthetized. The fracture site and surrounding tissues were surgically debrided and flushed with sterile 0.05% chlorhexidine solution. The laceration in the oral mucosa was closed with absorbable suture in an interrupted horizontal mattress pattern. Additionally, a Penrose drain was placed during primary closure and removed 4 days later in 1 calf. The fractured incisors were removed during primary debridement in another calf. All calves received perioperative antimicrobials and analgesics. One calf developed mild osteomyelitis of the rostral mandible, which resolved with additional surgical debridement and antimicrobial treatment. That calf and another developed mild brachygnathia. At the time of last follow-up (3 to 13 months after hospital discharge), all 3 calves were eating and growing as expected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3 calves with open rostral mandibular fractures were successfully managed by surgical debridement and primary closure of the oral laceration. The procedure was easy to perform, did not require specialized equipment, and was less expensive than other repair methods. This procedure may be an effective and economic on-farm treatment alternative for calves with rostral mandibular fractures.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association