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OBJECTIVE To substantiate current AVMA guidelines for immersion euthanasia of goldfish (Carassius auratus) with tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS), determine whether immersion in propofol at 5 times its immersion anesthesia concentration for 30 minutes is sufficient for euthanasia of goldfish, and quantify the duration of myocardial contraction following immersion of goldfish in TMS and decapitation.

DESIGN Prospective clinical trial.

ANIMALS 36 healthy, adult goldfish.

PROCEDURES Goldfish were randomly assigned to be immersed in 1 of 6 test solution treatments (n = 6/treatment): TMS (500 mg/L) for 15 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent–free water (T15W), placement out of water (T15A), or decapitation (T15D); TMS (1,000 mg/L) for 15 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent–free water (T15XW); TMS (500 mg/L) for 30 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent–free water (T30W); or propofol (25 mg/L) for 30 minutes followed by placement in anesthetic agent–free water (P30W). Any fish that resumed operculation in group T15A was returned to anesthetic agent–free water. Times from onset of immersion to induction of anesthesia, cessation and resumption of operculation, and recovery (T15W, T15A, T15XW, T30W, P30W) or cessation of Doppler ultrasounds (T15D) were recorded.

RESULTS Overall, 5 of 6, 6 of 6, 6 of 6, 6 of 6, and 5 of 6 fish survived in the T15W, T15A, T15XW, T30W, and P30W groups, respectively. Median time to cessation of Doppler ultrasounds in group T15D was 77.5 minutes (range, 30 to 240 minutes).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Timed immersion in test solutions (TMS at 500 mg/L or 1,000 mg/L or propofol at 25 mg/L) resulted in death in only 7% (2/30) of immersed goldfish. Myocardial contractions continued for up to 4 hours in decapitated goldfish.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the effect of presurgical storage conditions on leakage pressures of enterotomy sites closed with unidirectional barbed suture material in fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed cadaveric canine jejunal specimens.


36 grossly normal jejunal segments obtained from 4 dog cadavers.


9 jejunal segments were harvested immediately from each euthanized dog and randomly assigned to be tested within 4 hours after collection (fresh segments), stored at 4°C for 24 hours before testing (chilled segments), or stored at −20°C for 7 days and thawed at 21°C for 6 hours before testing (frozen-thawed segments). For leakage pressure testing, a 3-cm-long antimesenteric enterotomy was performed and repaired with 3-0 unidirectional barbed suture material in a simple continuous pattern in each segment. Time to complete the enterotomy, initial leakage pressure, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location were recorded for each segment.


Mean ± SD initial leakage pressure for fresh, chilled, and frozen-thawed segments was 52.8 ± 14.9 mm Hg, 51.8 ± 11.9 mm Hg, and 33.3 ± 7.7 mm Hg, respectively. Frozen-thawed segments had significantly lower mean initial leakage pressure, compared with findings for fresh or chilled segments. Time to complete the enterotomy, maximum intraluminal pressure, and leakage location did not differ among groups.


Leak pressure testing of cadaveric jejunal segments that are fresh or chilled at 4°C for 24 hours is recommended for enterotomy studies involving barbed suture material in dogs. Freezing and thawing of cadaveric jejunal tissues prior to investigative use is not recommended because leak pressure data may be falsely low.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of IM alfaxalone and isoflurane administration in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and compare use of these agents with use of manual restraint.

ANIMALS 42 healthy budgerigars.

PROCEDURES For dose comparison, birds received alfaxalone (5 or 10 mg/kg [2.27 or 4.54 mg/lb], IM; groups A5 and A10, respectively; n = 6/group). For treatment comparison, birds received alfaxalone (10 mg/kg, IM) or isoflurane (via face mask) or were manually restrained (groups A, I, and M, respectively; n = 10/group). Data were obtained on onset, degree, and duration of sedation or anesthesia; heart and respiratory rates; and recovery times. Birds in the treatment comparison underwent physical examination and blood gas analysis.

RESULTS All group A5 birds became sedate, but not recumbent. In group A10, 5 of 6 birds lost the righting reflex; however, none lost the noxious stimulus response. Median time to initial effects was significantly shorter and mean time to complete recovery was significantly longer in group A10 than in group A5. Heart and respiratory rates in group A10 remained clinically acceptable; however, some birds had signs of excitement during induction and recovery. Times to initial effects, recumbency, and complete recovery were significantly longer, yet clinically practical, in group A than in group I. Plasma lactate concentrations were significantly higher in group M than in groups A and I.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Alfaxalone administered IM at 10 mg/kg produced effective sedation in healthy budgerigars and may be a viable alternative to isoflurane and manual restraint for brief, minimally invasive procedures. Brief manual restraint resulted in a significant increase in plasma lactate concentration.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare complications between healthy horses undergoing general anesthesia for ophthalmic versus non-ophthalmic procedures and identify potential risk factors for the development of complications.

DESIGN Retrospective case series.

ANIMALS 502 horses (556 anesthetic procedures).

PROCEDURES Medical records from January 2012 through December 2014 were reviewed to identify horses undergoing general anesthesia. Signalment, body weight, drugs administered, patient positioning, procedure type (ophthalmic, orthopedic, soft tissue, or diagnostic imaging), specific procedure, procedure time, anesthesia time, recovery time, recovery quality, and postoperative complications were recorded.

RESULTS Patients underwent general anesthesia for ophthalmic (n = 106), orthopedic (246), soft tissue (84), diagnostic imaging (110), or combined (10) procedures. Mean procedure, anesthesia, and recovery times were significantly longer for patients undergoing ophthalmic versus non-ophthalmic procedures. Excluding diagnostic imaging procedures, there was a significant positive correlation between surgery time and recovery time. Within ophthalmic procedures, surgery time, anesthesia time, and recovery time were significantly greater for penetrating keratoplasty versus other ophthalmic procedures. There was a significantly higher rate of postoperative colic following penetrating keratoplasty, compared with all other ophthalmic procedures.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that in healthy horses, duration of general anesthesia should be minimized to decrease the risk of postanesthetic complications. Judicious use of orally administered fluconazole is recommended for horses undergoing general anesthesia. For horses undergoing a retrobulbar nerve block during general anesthesia, use of the lowest effective volume is suggested.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association