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  • Author or Editor: Juliana P. Figueiredo x
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Objective—To compare the cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, analgesic, and behavioral effects between IV and IM administration of morphine in conscious horses with no signs of pain.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM or IV) or morphine sulfate (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, IM or IV) in a randomized, masked crossover study design. The following variables were measured before and for 360 minutes after drug administration: heart and respiratory rates; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures; rectal temperature; arterial pH and blood gas variables; intestinal motility; and response to thermal and electrical noxious stimuli. Adverse effects and horse behavior were also recorded. Plasma concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, and morphine-6-glucuronide were measured via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.

Results—No significant differences in any variable were evident after saline solution administration. Intravenous and IM administration of morphine resulted in minimal and short-term cardiorespiratory, intestinal motility, and behavioral changes. A decrease in gastrointestinal motility was detected 1 to 2 hours after IM administration of morphine at doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg and after IV administration of morphine at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Morphine administration yielded no change in any horse's response to noxious stimuli. Both morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were detected in plasma after IV and IM administration of morphine.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Clinically relevant doses of morphine sulfate yielded minimal and short-term behavioral and intestinal motility effects in healthy horses with no signs of pain. Neither dose of morphine affected their response to a noxious stimulus.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine alone and in combination with butorphanol or ketamine in cats.

Design—Randomized crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Cats were given dexmedetomidine alone (10 μg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], IM), a combination of dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg, IM) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM), or a combination of dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg, IM) and ketamine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], IM). Treatments were administered in random order, with ≥ 1 week between treatments. Physiologic variables were assessed before and after drug administration. Time to lateral recumbency, duration of lateral recumbency, time to sternal recumbency, time to recovery from sedation, and subjective evaluation of sedation, muscle relaxation, and auditory response were assessed.

Results—Each treatment resulted in adequate sedation; time to lateral recumbency, duration of lateral recumbency, and time to recovery from sedation were similar among treatments. Time to sternal recumbency was significantly greater after administration of dexmedetomidine-ketamine. Heart rate decreased significantly after each treatment; however, the decrease was more pronounced after administration of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol, compared with that following the other treatments. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements decreased significantly from baseline with all treatments; 50 minutes after drug administration, mean blood pressure differed significantly from baseline only when cats received dexmedetomidine and butorphanol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in cats, administration of dexmedetomidine combined with butorphanol or ketamine resulted in more adequate sedation, without clinically important cardiovascular effects, than was achieved with dexmedetomidine alone. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:37–41)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether a heat and moisture exchange device (HME) prevents a decrease in body temperature in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic procedures.

Design—Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—60 privately owned dogs weighing at least 15 kg (33 lb).

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 20/group): HME placed immediately after anesthetic induction with isoflurane, after transfer to the operating room, or not at all. The device consisted of a hygroscopic filter placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the anesthesia circuit. Each dog was positioned on a circulating warm water blanket and had a forced-air warming blanket placed over its body. Body temperature was monitored after transfer to the operating room with a probe placed in the thoracic aspect of the esophagus.

Results—Study groups did not differ significantly with respect to body weight, body condition score, reproductive status, breed, surgical procedure, preoperative sedative and opioid administration, anesthetic induction drug, local nerve block technique, or operating room assignment. There were no significant differences among groups in esophageal temperature variables, interval between anesthetic induction and surgery, surgery duration, anesthesia duration, or oxygen flow rate. However, the relationship between temperature delta and body weight was significant and relevant (R 2 = 0.23), as was the association between temperature nadir and body weight (R 2= 0.10). As body weight increased, the temperature delta decreased and temperature nadir increased. No other significant relationships were identified.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Inclusion of an HME in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for an elective orthopedic surgery did not facilitate maintenance of body temperature throughout the procedure.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association