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The purpose of the study reported herein was to determine the dose of oleander extract and oleandrin (the key pharmacologically active constituent) that could be safely administered PO to dogs.


42 purebred Beagle dogs were used to study an extract of Nerium oleander.


3 studies were performed in 42 purebred young adult (ages 12 months or older) Beagle dogs using a supercritical fluid extract of N oleander leaves. The first study was an 8-day initial dose-ranging study in 2 dogs, a second 7-day repeat-dosing study was performed in 4 dogs, and the final study was performed in 32 dogs where test subjects were given extract or placebo once daily for 28 consecutive days via oral (gavage) administration followed by a 14-day recovery period.


At 2.3 µg/kg of oleandrin, there were no observable adverse effects during the duration of the study. Adverse effects were not seen until doses exceeded 6.9 µg/kg of oleandrin, at which time mild, reversible clinical signs were noted. However, a dose > 460 µg of oleandrin/kg was fatal in 1 of 2 dogs in this study.


The studies reported here, taken in totality, suggest that doses exceeding 6.9 µg/kg of oleandrin may be associated with cardiac abnormalities. An estimated no treatment effective adverse event oral dose of oleandrin appears to be 4.6 µg of oleandrin/kg. Higher doses may be tolerable but should be used with appropriate monitoring.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To compare stroke volume (SV) calculated on the basis of cardiac morphology determined by MRI and results of phase-contrast angiography (PCA) of ventricular inflow and outflow in dogs.

ANIMALS 10 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES Cardiac MRI was performed twice on each Beagle. Cine gradient echo sequences of both ventricles in short-axis planes were used for morphological quantification of SVs by assessment of myocardial contours. From the long-axis plane, SVs in 4-chamber and left ventricular 2-chamber views were acquired at end diastole and end systole. For calculation of SV on the basis of blood flow, PCA was performed for cardiac valves.

RESULTS Mean ± SD values for SV quantified on the basis of blood flow were similar in all valves (aortic, 17.8 ± 4.1 mL; pulmonary, 17.2 ± 5.4 mL; mitral, 17.2 ± 3.9 mL; and tricuspid, 16.9 ± 5.1 mL). Morphological quantification of SV in the short-axis plane yielded significant differences between left (13.4 ± 2.7 mL) and right (8.6 ± 2.4 mL) sides. Morphological quantification of left ventricular SV in the long-axis plane (15.2 ± 3.3 mL and 20.7 ± 3.8 mL in the 4- and 2-chamber views) yielded variable results, which differed significantly from values for flow-based quantification, except for values for the morphological 4-chamber view and PCA for the atrioventricular valves, for which no significant differences were identified.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In contrast to quantification based on blood flow, calculation on the basis of morphology for the short-axis plane significantly underestimated SV, probably because of through-plane motion and complex right ventricular anatomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research