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Abstract

Objective—To characterize and quantitatively assess the typical pulmonary anatomy of healthy adult alpacas with multidetector row CT.

Animals—10 clinically normal adult female alpacas.

Procedures—CT examination of the thorax was performed before and after IV administration of iodinated contrast medium in sedated alpacas in sternal recumbency. Measurements of the trachea, bronchi and related blood vessels, and selected vertebrae as well as the extent and density of lung parenchyma were performed with a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewer. Morphometric and quantitative data were summarized.

Results—Separation of individual lung lobes could not be identified, except for the accessory lung lobe. In all alpacas, both lungs extended farther caudally at the medial aspect than at the lateral aspect. The right lung extended farther in both cranial and caudal directions than did the left lung. The branching pattern of the bronchial tree varied only slightly among alpacas and consisted of 1 cranial bronchus and 3 caudal bronchi bilaterally, with a right accessory bronchus. Luminal diameters of first-generation bronchi ranged from 3 to 9 mm. Mean ± SD parenchymal lung density was −869 ± 40 Hounsfield units (HU) before contrast injection and −825 ± 51 HU after contrast injection. Mean difference in diameter between bronchi and associated arteries or veins was 0.8 ± 0.9 mm.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Knowledge of the typical anatomy of the lungs and bronchial tree in healthy alpacas as determined via CT will aid veterinarians in clinical assessment and bronchoscopic evaluation of alpacas.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the serum concentrations and sedative effects of fentanyl after transdermal administration at 3 dosages in llamas.

Animals—9 healthy adult female llamas (mean age, 8 ± 3 years; mean weight, 150 ± 18 kg).

Procedure—Llamas were allocated to 1 of 3 groups (3 llamas/group). Fentanyl patches (each providing transdermal delivery of 75 µg of fentanyl/h) were placed on shaved areas of the antebrachium of all llamas. In group 1, llamas were treated with 1 patch (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 75 µg/h). In group 2, llamas were treated with 2 patches (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 150 µg/h). In group 3, llamas were treated with 4 patches (anticipated fentanyl dosage, 300 µg/h). For each llama, the degree of sedation was assessed by use of a subjective scoring system and a blood sample was collected for determination of serum fentanyl concentration at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after patch placement.

Results—Following the placement of 4 patches, mean ± SD serum fentanyl concentration in group 3 llamas reached 0.3 ± 0.08 ng/mL within 12 hours. This concentration was sustained for 72 hours. In group 2, application of 2 patches provided inconsistent results; in group 1, application of 1 patch rarely provided measurable serum fentanyl concentrations. No llamas became sedated at any time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that application of four 75 µg/h fentanyl patches provides consistent, sustained serum fentanyl concentrations without sedation in llamas. However, the serum concentration of fentanyl that provides analgesia in llamas is not known. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:907–909)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research