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Abstract

Objective—To assess efficacy of Giardia vaccination as a treatment for giardiasis in experimentally infected cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—16 young-adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were experimentally infected by orogastric administration of Giardia cysts. On weeks 4, 6, and 10, cats in the treatment group (n = 8) were given Giardia vaccine SC. For the first 28 weeks after infection, 3 fecal samples from each cat were examined weekly for Giardia cysts, and cyst numbers were counted. Fecal consistency was scored daily for the duration of the study. Results from vaccinated and unvaccinated cats were compared by logistic regression.

Results—All cats became infected and were shedding Giardia cysts by the end of week 2. Throughout the study, diarrhea was rare and was mild and transient when it did occur. By week 28, 5 of 8 vaccinated cats and 7 of 8 control cats had patent Giardia infections. Magnitude of infection, based on number of fecal samples with cysts and number of cysts per sample, decreased progressively in both groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 3 doses of a Giardia vaccine did not completely eliminate the organism from experimentally infected cats in the study period. Since clinical signs were minimal in both groups of cats, it could not be determined whether vaccination lessened severity of clinical disease. Results may have been negatively influenced by the large inoculation dose. Whether Giardia vaccination is an effective treatment for giardiasis in naturally infected cats remains to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1548–1551)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe the kinetics of demethylation of 13C-aminopyrine in healthy dogs for use in determining the most appropriate time for collection of blood samples for a 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test for evaluation of hepatic function.

Animals—9 healthy dogs.

Procedures—A 2-mL baseline blood sample was collected into an evacuated heparinized tube, and 13Caminopyrine was administered to each dog (2 mg/kg, IV). Additional 2-mL blood samples were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration. The CO2 was extracted from blood samples by addition of a strong acid, and the percentage dose of 13CO2 (PCD) in the extracted gas was determined by fractional mass spectrometry.

Results—No dogs had gross evidence of adverse effects, and all had an increase in PCD after IV administration of 13C-aminopyrine. The PCD had the least variability among 5 variables used to evaluate hepatic demethylating capacity. Peak PCD was detected at 30 minutes in 1 dog, 45 minutes in 5 dogs, 60 minutes in 2 dogs, and 75 minutes in 1 dog. The mean PCD for the 9 dogs peaked at 45 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PCD appears to be the preferable variable for evaluation of hepatic demethylating capacity. Intravenous administration of 13C-aminopyrine leads to a consistent increase in PCD. Mean PCD peaked 45 minutes after administration, suggesting that blood sample collection 45 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration may be appropriate for use in estimating hepatic demethylating capacity. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:159–162)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that exchange of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) in the diet of dogs with well-managed exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) changes serum biochemical variables and to subjectively assess the well-being of dogs with EPI in response to experimental diets.

Animals—21 dogs with EPI and 6 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—The effects of 3 diets containing 0%, 16%, or 35% of the total fat content as MCTs were examined in a randomized controlled double-blind crossover trial. The 3 diets were fed for 12 weeks each. Dietary effects were evaluated by both subjective and objective variables.

Results—Analysis of subjective data revealed no significant difference in appetite, attitude, drinking behavior, volume of feces, defecation frequency, color of feces, consistency of feces, flatulence, or borborygmus among dogs fed the 3 experimental diets. A high MCT content in the diet was associated with significantly higher serum vitamin E, cholesterol, triglyceride, retinyl stearate, retinyl palmitate, and total vitamin A concentrations in dogs with EPI and significantly higher serum vitamin E concentrations in control dogs, compared with low MCT content. High MCT content in the diet was also associated with significantly lower concentrations of serum linoleic acid (C18:2[n-6]) in dogs with EPI and in control dogs, compared with low MCT content.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A high MCT content in the diet leads to increases in serum concentrations of cholesterol and certain fat-soluble vitamins. However, no effect was found on the subjective well-being of the dogs as evaluated by their owners. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1293–1302)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine an optimal dose of carbon 13 (13C)-labeled aminopyrine for use in a 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.

Animals—9 adult dogs.

Procedures—Food was withheld from each dog for 12 hours. A 2-mL baseline blood sample was obtained from each dog and placed into an evacuated tube containing sodium heparin. Carbon 13-labeled aminopyrine was administered IV at doses of 1, 2, 5, or 10 mg/kg. Additional blood samples (2 mL) were obtained and placed into evacuated tubes containing sodium heparin 30, 45, 60, and 75 minutes after 13C-aminopyrine administration. Hydrochloric acid was used to extract CO2 from blood samples. The extracted gas was analyzed by fractional mass spectrometry to determine the percentage dose of 13C administered as 13C-aminopyrine and recovered in extracted gas (PCD).

Results—Gross evidence of clinical adverse effects was not detected in any dog after administration of 13C-aminopyrine. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for PCD was significantly lower than the mean CV for the summation of PCD values up to a given sampling time (CUMPCD). Mean PCD values among the 4 doses for each sample time were not significantly different. Administration of 13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the lowest interindividual variability.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The PCD is superior to CUMPCD for the quantification of aminopyrine demethylation. Administration of 13C-13C-aminopyrine at a dose of 2 mg/kg is appropriate for use in the 13C-aminopyrine demethylation blood test in healthy dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether treatment with a preparation of Propionibacterium acnes would improve pregnancy and live foal rates in mares with persistent endometritis.

Design—Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—95 mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis.

Procedures—Mares were treated with P acnes or placebo (both administered IV) on days 0, 2, and 6. No attempt was made to alter additional treatments administered by attending veterinarians. Information on breeding history, physical examination findings, results of cytologic examination and microbial culture of uterine samples, additional treatments administered, breeding dates, results of pregnancy examinations, whether a live foal was produced, and reactions to treatment was recorded.

Results—In multivariate logistic regression models, mare age, year of entry into the study, and first breeding within 8 days after first treatment with P acnes or placebo were significantly associated with pregnancy. Fewer number of cycles bred and younger age were significantly associated with delivery of a live foal in a separate multivariate analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that mares treated with P acnes were more likely to become pregnant and to deliver a live foal, compared with placebo-treated controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of P acnes as an adjunct to conventional treatments in mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis improved pregnancy and live foal rates. The optimal effect was detected in mares bred during the interval extending from 2 days before to 8 days after first treatment with P acnes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association