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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of medetomidine and xylazine hydrochloride on results of cystometry and micturition reflexes in healthy dogs and results of urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in sedated and conscious dogs.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedures—Urodynamic testing was performed 6 times in each dog (3 times after administration of xylazine [1 mg/kg of body weight, IV] and 3 times after administration of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM). Before each episode of sedation, UPP was performed. Heart and respiratory rates and indirect blood pressures were recorded prior to and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after injection of sedative. Cystometry measurements included threshold volume, threshold pressure, and tonus limb. The UPP measurements included maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), functional profile length, and, in male dogs, plateau pressure.

Results—Mean MUCP was decreased markedly in xylazine- and medetomidine-sedated dogs. Xylazine and medetomidine also decreased plateau pressure in male dogs. The MUCP measurements were consistent among days for conscious and xylazine-sedated dogs but were inconsistent for medetomidinesedated female dogs. The proportion of valid cystometry measurements was greater for xylazine (39 of 60) than for medetomidine (27 of 60). Cystometry was considered invalid when bladder pressure reached 30 cm H2O without initiation of a micturition reflex.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomi dine and xylazine have similar effects on measurement of UPP and cystometry. Medetomidine was less consistent among days for UPP in female dogs and produced fewer valid cystometry tests, compared with xylazine. For urodynamic evaluations, medetomidine administered IM cannot be substituted for xylazine administered IV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:167–170)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Noninvasive determination of anal and genitoanal reflexes was evaluated in clinically normal cats. Thirty adult mixed-breed cats (15 sexually intact or castrated males, 15 sexually intact or spayed females) were sedated by iv administration of ketamine, acetylpromazine, and atropine. Anal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after ipsilateral and contralateral electrical stimulation of the perineal skin. Genitoanal reflexes were recorded from the anal sphincter muscle after electrical stimulation of the penis or clitoris. An anal sphincter response to tibial nerve stimulation was attempted.

Anal reflexes from ipsilateral and contralateral stimulations and a genitoanal reflex were detected in all cats. Anal sphincter responses to tibial nerve stimulation were inconsistent (4/30) and were not included in any analyses. Anal reflexes had response latencies of 7.5 to 12.0 ms (ipsilateral stimulation) and 6.5 to 13 ms (contralateral stimulation). Genitoanal reflexes had latencies of 9.0 to 13.0 ms (males) and 6.5 to 9.0 ms (females). Anal reflex latencies were significantly (P < 0.05) longer for contralateral, opposed to ipsilateral, stimulation and were significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females. Genitoanal reflex latencies were also significantly (P < 0.05) longer in males than in females, reflecting the more peripheral stimulation site in males.

Anal reflex responses could be recorded in 2 feline clinic patients with such severe perineal trauma that pudendal nerve function could not be manually evaluated. A potentially favorable prognosis was given in each instance on the basis of detection of the response. One cat eventually recovered. The other was euthanatized because of other problems, and the sacral part of the spinal cord, sacral nerve roots, and pudendal nerves were found to be intact at necropsy.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Evaluation of pudendal reflexes and effects of pudendal branch conditioning on those reflexes was carried out in 2 studies. In the first study of pudendal reflexes, 20 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent surgical isolation of the anal branch, urethral branch, and distal trunk (consisting primarily of the dorsal nerve of the penis/clitoris) of the pudendal nerve. Reflexes were tested in all possible ipsilateral and contralateral test-response combinations. Latency values and effects of increasing stimulus rate on response amplitude were recorded. Reflexes were detected in all combinations, with response latencies between 6.3 and 13.0 ms. Response amplitudes were diminished at stimulus rates of 3 to 5 Hz, and responses were apparently abolished at 4 to 16 Hz, suggesting that pudendal reflexes are polysynaptic.

In the second study of conditioning effects, 9 adult male and female mixed-breed cats underwent preparation similar to that for study 1. A train of conditioning stimuli was applied to branches of the pudendal nerve prior to attempting to induce reflex responses, as performed in study 1. Conditioning completely abolished reflex responses for a period of 70 to 130 ms. Reflex responses were diminished in amplitude, compared with those observed during preconditioning trials, for 180 to 300 ms after conditioning.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research