To evaluate the agreement between 3 point-of-care (POC) devices and a reference laboratory for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration in African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) whole blood (WB) and plasma samples and the precision of each POC device for measuring β-HB concentration in plasma samples.
48 healthy African penguins.
Blood was obtained from the right jugular vein of each penguin, and β-HB concentration was measured on each POC device using fresh WB and heparinized plasma and at the reference laboratory using plasma. β-HB concentration was measured in plasma on each POC device.
All devices overestimated serum β-HB concentrations on average by 0.46 mM relative to the reference laboratory. WB samples had less error than plasma for meters A and C. Meter A had the lowest total error observed (26.4%) and the lowest mean difference (0.19 mmol/L) relative to the reference laboratory. Controlling for other factors, the magnitude of disagreement was not affected by sex, age, packed cell volume, or serum total solids concentration.
WB, not plasma, should be used for measurement of β-HB concentration on the POC meters tested. Meter A showed good correlation with the reference laboratory for WB. The use of POC devices for the measurement of β-HB concentration may be acceptable when laboratory analyzers are not available. Further research is needed for clinical application and the diagnostic value of POC meters compared with reference laboratories.
To evaluate the adherence of veterinary randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts to the recommendations on minimum abstract information included in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist for RCT abstracts and to identify characteristics associated with the number of CONSORT items reported.
212 abstracts representing all RCTs published in 5 general veterinary journals in 2013 and 2018.
2 investigators independently assessed whether each of the 15 CONSORT checklist items for abstracts applicable to veterinary medicine was reported. Generalized linear mixed models were built to explore associations of selected variables with the total number of checklist items reported.
Abstracts included a median of 5 checklist items (range, 2 to 10 items). None met the recommendations for reporting participant recruitment and funding source. Less than 25% of abstracts met the recommendations for the title, participant eligibility criteria, primary outcome, randomization technique, blinding, numbers analyzed, primary outcome results, and harms to participants. The number of items reported was higher in abstracts of RCTs that included clinical patients (vs other participants; OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.22). The number of items reported did not significantly change over time.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that the reporting quality of abstracts of RCTs in general veterinary journals was suboptimal per CONSORT recommendations. Because abstracts may be the only reference material available in certain settings, improvements are warranted to ensure readers have the information they need to properly interpret reported findings.
To assess what information sources veterinarians use to select drug dosages for treating exotic animals and how they implement this information.
936 veterinarians from Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas.
An anonymous, online survey was used to collect data on information sources used for dosage decisions by veterinarians treating exotic species. Logistic regression models were built to identify associations between individual characteristics and primary outcomes.
Respondents reported their single most common source for establishing drug dosages as formularies (682/936 [72.9%]), followed by scientific journals (96 [10.3%]), other textbooks (68 [7.3%]), colleagues (47 [5.0%]), or continuing education notes (38 [4.1%]). Over two-thirds of the respondents (645, 68.9%) consulted a specific exotic animal formulary for establishing drug dosages in most situations. Of the 936 respondents, 407 (43.5%) reported that they sometimes (318 [34.0%]) or never (89 [9.5%]) checked the source of a dosage in a textbook or a formulary, 503 (55.3%) reported that they sometimes (399 [42.6%]) or never (104 [11.1%]) searched the original publication on a dosage, and 486 (51.9%) reported that they would base their dosage decision on the abstract of an article if they had no access to the full-text. Several respondents’ reported characteristics were significant predictors of primary outcomes.
Considering our findings, we recommend authors of formularies and textbooks should focus on evidence-based information and state clearly when information is anecdotal. Tailored strategies to educate veterinarians treating exotic animals on the importance of primary sources are also recommended.
To compare mineral types of naturally occurring uroliths in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) from North America, Europe, and Asia and to identify potential risk factors associated with cystine urolithiasis in ferrets.
1,054 laboratory submission records of uroliths obtained from ferrets between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2018.
For this cross-sectional study, the medical records databases at 4 diagnostic laboratories were searched for records of submissions of uroliths obtained from ferrets. Data collection included submission date; ferret sex, neuter status, and age; receiving laboratory and continent; and urolith mineral type. Regression analyses were performed to identify variables associated with cystine uroliths.
Of the 1,054 urolith submissions, 1,013 were from North America, with 92.6% (938/1,013; 95% CI, 90.8% to 94.1%) cystine uroliths, and 41 were from Europe and Asia, with only 26.8% (11/41; 95% CI, 15.7% to 41.9%) cystine uroliths. Median age was 2.0 years for ferrets with cystine urolithiasis versus 4.0 years for those with other types of uroliths. Submissions were more likely cystine uroliths for ferrets in North America versus Europe and Asia (adjusted OR [aOR], 59.5; 95% CI, 21.4 to 165.6), for ferrets that were younger (aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.77), or for submissions in 2018 versus 2010 (aOR, 21.1; 95% CI, 5.1 to 87.9).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the proportion of submissions that were cystine uroliths dramatically increased in North America between 2010 and 2018. There is an urgent need to determine underlying causes and mitigate cystine urolithiasis in ferrets.
To determine the prevalence of pectoral girdle fractures in wild passerines found dead following presumed window collision and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic views for diagnosis of pectoral girdle fractures.
Cadavers of 103 wild passerines that presumptively died as a result of window collisions.
Seven radiographic projections (ventrodorsal, dorsoventral, lateral, and 4 oblique views) were obtained for each cadaver. A necropsy was then performed, and each bone of the pectoral girdle (coracoid, clavicle, and scapula) was evaluated for fractures. Radiographs were evaluated in a randomized order by a blinded observer, and results were compared with results of necropsy.
Fifty-six of the 103 (54%) cadavers had ≥ 1 pectoral girdle fracture. Overall accuracy of using individual radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 63.1% to 72.8%, sensitivity ranged from 21.3% to 51.1%, and specificity ranged from 85.7% to 100.0%. The sensitivity of using various combinations of radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 51.1% to 66.0%; specificity ranged from 76.8% to 96.4%.
Radiography alone appeared to have limited accuracy for diagnosing fractures of the bones of the pectoral girdle in wild passerines after collision with a window. Both individual radiographic projections and combinations of projections resulted in numerous false negative but few false positive results.
To assess feasibility of the use of a dynamic viscoelastic coagulometer on chicken blood and compare coagulation variables for fresh whole blood and sodium citrate–preserved whole blood as well as effects of 3 coagulation activators on blood from chickens.
Blood samples from 30 hens.
Chickens were allowed to rest undisturbed for 1 hour. A blood sample was collected from an ulnar vein; 1.4 mL was analyzed immediately, and 1.8 mL was mixed with sodium citrate and subsequently recalcified and analyzed. A separate coagulation activator (glass beads, kaolin clay, or tissue factor) was in each of the 2 channels of the analyzer. Chickens were allowed a 1-hour rest period, and another blood sample was collected from the contralateral ulnar vein; it was processed in the same manner as for the first sample, except both channels of the analyzer contained the same coagulation activator.
Compared with fresh samples, citrated samples had higher values for activated clotting time and platelet function and lower clotting rates. Intra-assay coefficients of variation of coagulation profiles for citrated samples were markedly greater than the limit of 10%, whereas values for fresh samples were close to or < 10%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that use of a dynamic viscoelastic coagulometer on chicken blood was feasible and that analysis of fresh whole blood from healthy chickens provided results with less variability than did analysis of citrated blood. Samples preserved with sodium citrate were associated with significant relative hypocoagulability, compared with results for fresh blood.
Case Description—A 5-year-old sexually intact female blue and gold macaw (Ara ararauna) was evaluated because of a swelling on the right side of the face and irritated area on the ventral aspect of the keel.
Clinical Findings—Clinical findings were consistent with dermatitis (right facial lesion) and a coalescing subdermal granuloma (ventral keel lesion). Hematologic analysis revealed monocytosis and mild anemia. Histologic evaluation of the ventral keel lesion revealed evidence of chronic heterophilic dermatitis with multinucleated giant cells and bacterial rods and cocci. An unspeciated gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium was isolated via aerobic bacterial culture. Results of bacterial biochemical tests suggested the organism was a type of Actinomyces. A 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed; results indicated the organism was Lactobacillus jensenii.
Treatment and Outcome—Extensive surgical debridement of the branching granuloma, which extended throughout the length of the keel, followed by long-term treatment with ciprofloxacin and clindamycin provided full resolution of clinical signs. No recrudescence of clinical signs was evident for up to 18 months after the initial evaluation.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Lactobacillus-associated dermatitis or subdermal granuloma in the scientific literature and the second report of L jensenii in avian species. Use of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was instrumental in the identification of this fastidious organism, indicating the method's usefulness as a diagnostic tool.
To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.
31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.
Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.
Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.
CASE DESCRIPTION An adult sexually intact female Harris hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) housed at a wildlife hospital was evaluated because of acute collapse during an educational exhibition.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination and hematologic analysis revealed no abnormalities; radiography revealed findings consistent with a previous tibiotarsal fracture. Coelioscopy with histologic examination and fungal culture of lung and air sac samples revealed anthracosis but no fungal infection. The hawk was discharged and temporarily removed from the education program; 1 month later, upon reintroduction into the program, it collapsed again. Physical examination and hematologic findings were similar to those after the first episode. Transcoelomic and transesophageal echocardiography and CT angiocardiography findings were consistent with cardiomyopathy.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial cardiac treatment included furosemide (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and pimobendan (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h). After 10 days of treatment, peak and trough plasma concentrations of pimobendan were measured at 25, 196 and 715.97 ng/mL, respectively; the dosage was decreased to 0.25 mg/kg (0.11 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours. No overt signs of toxicosis were detected. A sample was collected to reevaluate plasma pimobendan concentration after 30 days of treatment; results were not obtained prior to the patient's death but revealed a peak concentration of 16.8 ng/mL, with an undetectable trough concentration. The hawk was found dead 6 months after initial evaluation. Necropsy revealed cardiomegaly, but histologic examination did not reveal an inciting cause of cardiac dysfunction.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cardiac disease in raptors may be underreported. Transcoelomic and transesophageal echocardiography and CT angiography provided useful information for the diagnosis of cardiac disease in the hawk of this report.