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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate cartilage and bone biomarkers and body composition in growing large-breed dogs consuming a diet designed for growth.

Animals—43 large-breed 2 month-old-puppies.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 foods until 18 months of age. Dogs were evaluated at 2, 5, 12, and 18 months of age via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), CBC, serum biochemical profile, and concentrations or activities of taurine, vitamin E, fatty acids, glutathione peroxidase, C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), carboxy-terminal cross-linked fragment of type II collagen (CTXII), bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, ghrelin, and growth hormone.

Results—Blood components largely reflected the composition of the foods. Dogs fed the food with a higher concentration of protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants had a lower percentage of body fat and greater percentage of lean body mass at 5, 12, and 18 months of age, and higher CPII:CTXII ratio and lower COMP at 18 months of age. The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration declined with age, whereas COMP concentration and CPII concentration were similar at all time points for both foods.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The BAP activity, osteocalcin concentration, and CTXII concentration were greater during growth than at 18 months of age. The food that was proportionately higher in protein, calcium, n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants increased lean body mass and may have positively affected cartilage turnover as maturity was attained. Whether the rate of cartilage turnover during growth affects development of orthopedic disease or arthritis in adulthood has yet to be determined.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of 3 rations (low grain, fat, high grain) on plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and lactate concentration in Thoroughbred horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER).

Animals—5 Thoroughbreds with RER and 3 healthy Thoroughbreds (control horses).

Procedures—Rations were formulated to meet (lowgrain and fat rations) or exceed (high-grain ration) daily energy requirements. Each ration was fed to horses in a crossover design for 3 weeks. Horses were exercised on a treadmill Monday through Friday; maximum speed on Monday and Friday was 11 m/s (6% slope), on Tuesday and Thursday was 9 m/s, and on Wednesday was 4.5 m/s. Plasma CK activity and lactate concentration were determined before and after exercise.

Results—Horses with RER fed the high-grain ration had significantly greater CK activity and change in CK activity 4 hours after exercise, compared with those fed the low-grain ration. Horses with RER exercised at the trot or canter had significantly greater increases in CK activity, compared with those exercised at the gallop. Plasma lactate concentrations after exercise were similar in control and affected horses. Lactate concentration and CK activity were not correlated in horses with RER.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Rations high in grain and formulated to exceed daily energy requirements may increase episodes of rhabdomyolysis in Thoroughbred horses susceptible to RER. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1390–1395)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine daily variation in urinary clearance and fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes and minerals within and between horses and to compare volumetric and single-sample urine collection for determining FE values of diets with a range of dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB).

Animals—5 Thoroughbred and 6 mixed-breed mares.

Procedure—3 isocaloric diets with low, medium, and high DCAB values (85, 190, and 380 mEq/kg of dry matter, respectively) were each fed for 14 days. Daily blood samples, single urine samples collected by using a urinary catheter (5 mares), and volumetric urine collections (6 mares) were obtained during the last 72 hours of each diet.

Results—Urine and plasma pH values, plasma concentrations, and FE values of sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium were altered by varying the DCAB. Noticeable variation in clearance and FE values was detected within horses from day-to-day on the same diet as well as between horses. Fractional excretion values were not significantly different between single-sample and volumetric methods, except for magnesium in the high DCAB diet. Volumetric and single-sample collections revealed similar patterns of change in urinary FE values with varying DCAB, except for calcium and magnesium.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial variation in clearance and FE of electrolytes and minerals are evident within horses between 24-hour periods as well as between horses fed a specific diet. Three daily urine samples provide similar information regarding dietary-induced changes in clearance and FE values (excluding calcium and magnesium) as that obtained by volumetric urine collection. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:284–291)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether plasma, urine, and fecal electrolyte and mineral concentrations differ between clinically normal horses and Thoroughbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) after consumption of diets varying in cation-anion balance.

Animals—5 Thoroughbred mares with RER and 6 clinically normal mixed-breed mares.

Procedure—Each of 3 isocaloric diets designated as low, medium, and high on the basis of dietary cationanion balance (DCAB) values of 85, 190, and 380, respectively, were fed to horses for 14 days. During the last 72 hours, 3 horses with RER and 3 control horses had daily urine and fecal samples obtained by total 24-hour collection. Remaining horses had urine samples collected daily by single catheterization.

Results—For each diet, no differences existed between horses with RER and control horses in plasma pH, electrolyte concentrations, and creatine kinase activity or in urine pH and renal fractional excretion (FE) values. Plasma pH, strong ion difference, bicarbonate and total carbon dioxide concentrations, and base excess decreased and plasma chloride and ionized calcium concentrations increased with decreasing DCAB. Urine pH decreased with decreasing DCAB. The FE of chloride and phosphorus were greatest for horses fed the low diet. The FE values for all electrolytes exept magnesium did not differ between urine samples obtained by single catheterization and total 24-hour collection. Daily balance of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, and potassium did not differ significantly among horses fed the various diets.

Conclusions—In clinically normal horses and in horses with RER, the DCAB strongly affects plasma and urine pH and the FE of sodium, potassium, chloride, and phosphorus. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1053–1060)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research