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To determine effects of low doses of medetomidine administered with and without butorphanol and glycopyrrolate to middle-aged and old dogs.


Prospective randomized clinical trial.


88 healthy dogs ≥ 5 years old.


Dogs were assigned randomly to receive medetomidine (2, 5, or 10 pa/kg [0.9, 2.3, or 4.6 μg/lb] of body weight, IM) alone or with glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/Ib], SC), medetomidine (10 μg/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.1 mg/lb], IM), or medetomidine (10 μg/kg), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), and glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with isoflurane. Degree of sedation and analgesia were determined before and after medetomidine administration. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and mean arterial blood pressure were determined 10 and 30 minutes after medetomidine administration. Adverse effects and amounts of thiopental and isoflurane used were recorded.


Sedation increased after medetomidine administration in 79 of 88 dogs, but decreased in 7 dogs that received 2 or 5 μg of medetomidine/kg. Mean postsedation analgesia score and amounts of thiopental and isoflurane used were less in dogs that received medetomidine and butorphanol, compared with other groups. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were not different among groups. Significantly more adverse effects developed in dogs that did not receive glycopyrrolate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Administration of medetomidine (10 μg/kg, IM) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IM) induced sedation and analgesia and reduced amounts of thiopental and isoflurane required for anesthesia in middle-aged and old dogs. Glycopyrrolate decreased frequency of medetomidine-associated adverse effects. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:1116–1120)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of anesthetic induction with a benzodiazepine plus ketamine or propofol on hypothermia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy without heat support.

ANIMALS 23 adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

PROCEDURES Baseline rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded prior to premedication with buprenorphine (0.02 mg/kg, IM) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam or diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, IV) plus ketamine (5 mg/kg, IV; n = 11) or propofol (4 mg/kg, IV; 12) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal temperature was measured at hospital intake, prior to premedication, immediately after anesthetic induction, and every 5 minutes after anesthetic induction. Esophageal temperature was measured every 5 minutes during anesthesia, beginning 30 minutes after anesthetic induction. After anesthesia, dogs were covered with a warm-air blanket and rectal temperature was measured every 10 minutes until normothermia (37°C) was achieved.

RESULTS Dogs in both treatment groups had lower rectal temperatures within 5 minutes after anesthetic induction and throughout anesthesia. Compared with dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus ketamine, dogs that received a benzodiazepine plus propofol had significantly lower rectal temperatures and the interval from discontinuation of anesthesia to achievement of normothermia was significantly longer.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Dogs in which anesthesia was induced with a benzodiazepine plus propofol or ketamine became hypothermic; the extent of hypothermia was more profound for the propofol combination. Dogs should be provided with adequate heat support after induction of anesthesia, particularly when a propofol-benzodiazepine combination is administered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To characterize clinical, clinicopathologic, and hepatic histopathologic features and outcome for dogs with probable ketoconazole-induced liver injury.


15 dogs with suspected ketoconazole-induced liver injury that underwent liver biopsy.


Medical record data were summarized regarding signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic and hepatic histopathologic findings, concurrent medications, ketoconazole dose, treatment duration, and outcome.


Median age and body weight were 8.2 years (range, 5 to 15 years) and 13.0 kg (28.6 lb; range, 8.2 to 38.0 kg [18.0 to 83.6 lb]), respectively. The most common breed was Cocker Spaniel (n = 5). All dogs received ketoconazole to treat cutaneous Malassezia infections. Median daily ketoconazole dose was 7.8 mg/kg (3.5 mg/lb; range, 4.4 to 26.0 mg/kg [2.0 to 11.8 mg/lb]), PO. Treatment duration ranged from 0.3 to 100 cumulative weeks (intermittent cyclic administration in some dogs); 6 dogs were treated for ≤ 10 days. Common clinical signs included lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. All dogs developed high serum liver enzyme activities. Hepatic histopathologic findings included variable lobular injury, mixed inflammatory infiltrates, and conspicuous aggregates of ceroid-lipofuscin–engorged macrophages that marked regions of parenchymal damage. Five dogs developed chronic hepatitis, including 3 with pyogranulomatous inflammation. Of the 10 dogs reported to have died at last follow-up, survival time after illness onset ranged from 0.5 to 165 weeks, with 7 dogs dying of liver-related causes.


Findings for dogs with hepatotoxicosis circumstantially associated with ketoconazole treatment suggested proactive monitoring of serum liver enzyme activities is advisable before and sequentially after initiation of such treatment.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association