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Objective—To determine interclinician agreement when assessing remission of lymphoma in dogs and the association among results of clinicians' assessments via lymph node palpation, cytologic examination of fine-needle lymph node aspirates, and flow cytometry as determinants of remission.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—23 dogs with untreated lymphoma.

Procedure—Two clinicians independently measured large lymph nodes and cytologic examination and flow cytometry of cells from a mandibular or popliteal lymph node were performed 1 week prior to initiating treatment. Lymph node measurements with clinicians' remission assessments and cytologic examination were repeated at weeks 2, 3, and 5; flow cytometry was repeated at week 5.

Results—Significant correlation was identified between clinicians' remission assessments. Significant correlation between lymph node palpation and cytologic examination was identified at week 5, but not at weeks 2 and 3. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 16 of 23 (70%) dogs at initial evaluation by use of flow cytometry, although it was of limited use at subsequent evaluations and results were not diagnostic of lymphoma in any dog at week 5, including 1 dog in which lymphoma was diagnosed cytologically.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that physical examination and measurement of lymph node volume may not be sufficient for accurately determining remission, that flow cytometry alone should not be relied on as a means for diagnosis, and that cytologic examination of fineneedle lymph node aspirates should be considered as the most accurate means of determining remission status at times in which treatment modifications are considered. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:562–566)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the annual cost of infections attributable to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus to US swine producers.

Design—Economic analysis.

Sample Population—Data on the health and productivity of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected breeding herds and growing-pig populations were collected from a convenience sample of swine farms in the midwestern United States.

Procedure—Health and productivity variables of PRRS-affected and PRRS-unaffected swine farms were analyzed to estimate the impact of PRRS on specific farms. National estimates of PRRS incidence were then used to determine the annual economic impact of PRRS on US swine producers.

Results—PRRS affected breeding herds and growing-pig populations as measured by a decrease in reproductive health, an increase in deaths, and reductions in the rate and efficiency of growth. Total annual economic impact of these effects on US swine producers was estimated at $66.75 million in breeding herds and $493.57 million in growing-pig populations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—PRRS imposes a substantial financial burden on US swine producers and causes approximately $560.32 million in losses each year. By comparison, prior to eradication, annual losses attributable to classical swine fever (hog cholera) and pseudorabies were estimated at $364.09 million and $36.27 million, respectively (adjusted on the basis of year 2004 dollars). Current PRRS control strategies are not predictably successful; thus, PRRS-associated losses will continue into the future. Research to improve our understanding of ecologic and epidemiologic characteristics of the PRRS virus and technologic advances (vaccines and diagnostic tests) to prevent clinical effects are warranted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:385–392)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To characterize the signalment, clinical signs, biological behavior, and response to treatment of carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—113 dogs with histologically confirmed carcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac.

Procedure—Data on signalment, clinical signs, and staging were reviewed and analyzed along with treatment modality for potential association with survival time.

Results—Sex distribution was approximately equal (54% female, 46% male). One hundred four dogs underwent treatment consisting of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or multimodal treatment. Median survival for treated dogs was 544 days (range, 0 to 1,873 days). Dogs treated with chemotherapy alone had significantly shorter survival (median, 212 days) than those receiving other treatments (median, 584 days). Dogs not treated with surgery had significantly shorter survival (median, 402 days) than those that underwent surgery as part of their treatment (median, 548 days). Dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 had significantly shorter survival (median, 292 days) than dogs with tumors ≥ 10 cm2 (median, 584 days). Hypercalcemia was identified in 27% (n = 29) of dogs, and those dogs had significantly shorter survival (median, 256 days), compared with those that were normocalcemic (median, 584 days). Dogs with pulmonary metastasis had significantly shorter survival (median, 219 days) than dogs without evidence of pulmonary metastasis (median, 548 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Unlike most previous reports, this study revealed an approximately equal sex distribution, and results suggest a more favorable prognosis. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: 825–831)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of prosthetic laryngoplasty on return to racing, performance index, and career longevity in racing Quarter Horses with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) and to evaluate performance variables for horses with RLN undergoing prosthetic laryngoplasty, compared with a control horse population.

DESIGN Multicenter, retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 162 racing Quarter Horses with RLN treated with prosthetic laryngoplasty (case horses) and 324 racing Quarter Horse without RLN (control horses).

PROCEDURES Medical and race records of case and control horses examined at 5 referral centers between January 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. Two control horses were matched with each case horse. Return to racing, earnings, number of racing starts, performance index, and career longevity were evaluated.

RESULTS The odds of returning to racing did not differ significantly between case and control horses but decreased with increasing age. Neither racing starts nor career longevity were affected by prosthetic laryngoplasty or by RLN grade. In fact, horses undergoing laryngoplasty for treatment of RLN and horses with the lowest RLN grade before surgery had higher performance indices after the surgery, compared with indices for control horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The faster speeds and shorter distances raced with Quarter Horses could alter how RLN impacts respiratory variables and performance in Quarter Horses, compared with other racehorse breeds. Further study is needed to understand the impacts of RLN and surgical treatments for RLN in racing Quarter Horses.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association