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Summary

Renal mass was surgically reduced in 78 dogs by uninephrectomy or by combined renal infarction and uninephrectomy. Renal clearance of inulin and renal clearance of exogenous creatinine were determined simultaneously, and the creatinine to inulin clearance (c/i) ratio was calculated. Clearance procedures were performed 2 to 3 months after reduction of renal mass, and were repeated at intervals thereafter. Overall, the c/i ratio was 1.008 ± 0.007 for 192 determinations, with a highly significant correlation (R2 = 0.994, P < 0.0001) between creatinine clearance and inulin clearance. There was no significant effect of gender of dogs, time after partial renal ablation, or dietary protein intake on c/i ratios. Degree of renal ablation did not affect c/i ratios. The results indicated that exogenous creatinine clearance is a valid measure of glomerular filtration rate in both male and female dogs with reduced renal mass.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare effects of medetomidine and xylazine hydrochloride on results of cystometry and micturition reflexes in healthy dogs and results of urethral pressure profilometry (UPP) in sedated and conscious dogs.

Animals—20 dogs.

Procedures—Urodynamic testing was performed 6 times in each dog (3 times after administration of xylazine [1 mg/kg of body weight, IV] and 3 times after administration of medetomidine (30 µg/kg, IM). Before each episode of sedation, UPP was performed. Heart and respiratory rates and indirect blood pressures were recorded prior to and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after injection of sedative. Cystometry measurements included threshold volume, threshold pressure, and tonus limb. The UPP measurements included maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), functional profile length, and, in male dogs, plateau pressure.

Results—Mean MUCP was decreased markedly in xylazine- and medetomidine-sedated dogs. Xylazine and medetomidine also decreased plateau pressure in male dogs. The MUCP measurements were consistent among days for conscious and xylazine-sedated dogs but were inconsistent for medetomidinesedated female dogs. The proportion of valid cystometry measurements was greater for xylazine (39 of 60) than for medetomidine (27 of 60). Cystometry was considered invalid when bladder pressure reached 30 cm H2O without initiation of a micturition reflex.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Medetomi dine and xylazine have similar effects on measurement of UPP and cystometry. Medetomidine was less consistent among days for UPP in female dogs and produced fewer valid cystometry tests, compared with xylazine. For urodynamic evaluations, medetomidine administered IM cannot be substituted for xylazine administered IV. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:167–170)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

In 6 female goats, the mean threshold for glucosuria was 159.5 ± 4.3 mg/dl. During increasing filtered loads of glucose, renal reabsorption of glucose reached maximal capacity, which was not exceeded when plasma glucose concentration was increased further. Measured in 10 female goats, the transport maximum for glucose was 119.1 ± 9.1 mg of glucose reabsorbed/min. During infusion of glucose, there was a significant (P < 0.05) time-dependent reduction in inulin clearance indicating that IV glucose administration may be inappropriate in goats with compromised renal function.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Renal clearance procedures were performed on adult mixed-breed dogs with a wide range of renal function. Endogenous creatinine clearance was computed after analyzing plasma and urine for creatinine by use of 2 methods, PAP and kinetic Jaffe. For 20-minute clearance procedures, [14C]inulin clearance was measured simultaneously with endogenous creatinine clearance.

For 111 twenty-minute clearance procedures performed on 24 dogs, [14C]inulin clearance was highly correlated with creatinine clearance for both methods of creatinine analysis (R 2 = 0.979 for [14C]inulin-PAP; R 2 = 0.943 for [14C]inulin-Jaffe). The absolute values for PAP and [14C]inulin clearance were nearly the same (PAP-to-[14C]inulin clearance ratio = 1.03 ± 0.08), but those for Jaffe clearance were substantially less than those for [14C]inulin clearance (Jaffe-to-[14C]inulin clearance ratio = 0.88 ± 0.10).

The Jaffe-to-[14C]inulin clearance ratio was inversely correlated with degree of renal function (R 2= 0.464), whereas the PAP-to-[14C]inulin clearance ratio was not correlated with degree of renal function (R 2 = 0.060). Thus, Jaffe-determined creatinine clearance varied, in relation to [14C]inulin clearance, depending on degree of renal function.

In 4 clinically normal dogs, 20-minute and 24-hour sample collections analyzed by use of the PAP method gave clearance values significantly greater, for both periods, than did Jaffe analyses. The PAP-determined creatinine clearance values were less than, but not significantly different from 20-minute exogenous creatinine clearance values determined 10 days after 24-hour collections.

For 20-minute and 24-hour collections, the difference in clearance values between the PAP and Jaffe methods was attributable mostly to lower plasma creatinine values for the PAP method (mean ± SEM, plasma PAP-to-Jaffe ratio = 0.798 ± 0.053). However, urine creatinine values also were less by use of the PAP method (urine PAP-to-Jaffe ratio = 0.943 ± 0.103).

We conclude that PAP-determined creatinine clearance reliably measured glomerular filtration rate during 20-minute collections, and probably during 24-hour collections as well. By contrast, Jaffe-determined creatinine clearance underestimated glomerular filtration rate by a variable amount.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

An Escherichia coli bacterial prostatitis was experimentally induced to determine the effect of bacterial infection on prostatic tissue zinc concentrations in castrated and gonadally intact male dogs. Five of the 22 mixedbreed dogs (group 1) had no culture evidence of infection 2 weeks after the instillation of bacteria into the prostate gland. The remaining 17 infected dogs were allotted to 2 groups; 1 group of dogs was subjected to castration (group ca, 7 dogs), and the other group of dogs was subjected to sham operation (group so, 10 dogs). The groups were divided into groups of dogs with prostatic infection at necropsy (groups ca-i and so-i), and those dogs without prostatic infection at necropsy (groups ca-n and so-n). Urine, prostatic fluid, and prostatic tissue (week 0, 7, ± 12) specimens were obtained for bacteriologic culturing to determine whether prostatic infection was present. Prostatic tissue was obtained at necropsy (week < 6, 7, or 12) for analysis of zinc concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

The logarithmic mean prostatic tissue zinc concentrations were compared between groups. Group ca had a significantly lower prostatic zinc concentration than all other groups. Zinc concentrations were not statistically different between any of the other groups.

Castration did decrease the prostatic tissue concentration of zinc, a known natural antibacterial factor. However, resistance to infection and resolution of infection were not correlated with prostatic tissue zinc concentrations in this experimental model.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

An Escherichia coli bacterial prostatitis was experimentally induced in dogs to determine the effect of castration on chronic bacterial prostatitis. Two weeks after instillation of bacteria directly into the prostate gland, 17 of 22 adult mixed-breed male dogs had positive urine or prostatic fluid cultures or both. Seven of the 17 dogs were randomly chosen to be castrated, and 10 of the 17 served as sham-operated controls.

At weekly intervals, urine was obtained from 17 dogs for aerobic microbiologic culturing. At each week, dogs with no bacterial growth in the cultured urine had prostatic fluid collected for aerobic microbiologic culture. Dogs with negative urine, prostatic fluid, and prostatic tissue needle biopsy culture results at week 7 were euthanatized. For remaining dogs, weekly cultures were continued until the dogs were euthanatized at week 12. None of the 7 castrated dogs and 6 of the 10 dogs subject to sham operation had prostatic infection at the time of necropsy. The castrated dogs had a mean infection duration of 4.2 weeks, which was statistically shorter than the 9.5 week mean duration of infection in the sham-operated controls.

Cultures of prostatic tissue obtained immediately after euthanasia correlated 100% with urine and prostatic fluid cultures taken before euthanasia. All of the 6 dogs with positive prostatic cultures at termination had moderate to marked lymphoplasmacytic chronic prostatitis. The 11 dogs that were not infected at the end of the study had normal to moderate lymphoplasmacytic chronic prostatitis on histologic examination.

Because castration reduced the duration of infection and resulted in fewer bacterial colony forming units per milliliter of urine, castration appears to be beneficial in the resolution of chronic bacterial prostatitis in this experimental model.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Excretion of creatinine, sodium sulfanilate (ss), and phenolsulfonphthalein (psp) was studied in healthy goats. In conscious goats, mean (± sem) inulin clearance was 2.26 ± 0.08 ml/min/kg of body weight. Endogenous creatinine clearance, 1.97 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg, underestimated inulin clearance (P < 0.01), probably because of the presence of noncreatinine chromogens in caprine plasma. The estimated renal clearance of psp was 6.88 ± 0.39 ml/min/kg, whereas the estimated renal clearance of ss was 3.71 ± 0.39 ml/min/kg. Both exceeded inulin clearance (P < 0.01), confirming renal tubular secretion of both compounds.

In 6 anesthetized goats, exogenous creatinine clearance and ss clearance exceeded inulin clearance (P < 0.05). Results of stop-flow experiments documented secretion of creatinine and ss by the proximal portion of the caprine nephron.

Plasma half-life of psp in uninephrectomized goats exceeded that in intact goats (20.2 ± 1.5 min vs 11.9 ± 0.7 min; P < 0.01). Similarly, plasma half-life of ss was greater in goats after uninephrectomy (58.2 ± 6.2 min vs 30.4 ± 1.2 min; P < 0.01).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension in spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or urodynamic measurements associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained, and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample, vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry, and leak point pressure test were performed. Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative tests were repeated 2 months after surgery. Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery.

Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery, and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2 months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP), compared with preoperative measurements, and their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension. Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%) owners being pleased with their decision to have surgery performed. The only predictors of complete urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more caudal position of the external urethral opening in relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and a longer overall urethral length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension alone will result in complete urinary control in few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve urinary control sufficiently that owners will be pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the LPP test correlates with improved urinary control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Twenty-four dogs with induced, severe chronic renal failure were allotted to 2 groups of 12 each. Group-A dogs were fed a 0.4% phosphorus (P)/0.6% calcium, 32% protein diet, and group-B dogs were fed a 1.4% P/l.9% calcium, 32% protein diet. Dogs were studied over 24 months to determine clinical status, survival, blood biochemical alterations, glomerular filtration rate (gfr), urinary excretion of P and protein, renal morphologic changes, and renal tissue concentrations of calcium, P, and magnesium.

Group-A dogs developed statistically significant differences from group-B dogs in several blood biochemical values (pcv and total solids, calcium, P, potassium, sodium, chlonde, total CO2 (TCO2), anion gap, and parathyroid hormone concentrations) and in urinary P excretion.

Mean ( ± sem) gfr values in group-A and group-B dogs were nearly identical when diets were initiated (group _A = 0.73 ± 0.05 ml/min/kg of body weight; group B = 0.72 ± 0.08 ml/min/kg), but significantly (P = 0.0346) lower gfr developed in group-B than in group-A dogs over time. At 24 months, gfr in survivors was 0.83 ± 0.08 and 0.63 ± 0.15 ml/min/kg for dogs of groups A and B, respectively.

Other measurements favored the hypothesis that P/calcium restriction was beneficial, but values failed to reach statistical significance. Survival was greater at 24 months in group-A than in group-B (7 vs 5) dogs, and renal tissue concentrations of calcium and P were higher in group-B than in group-A dogs.

Differences were not detected between groups in urinary excretion of protein and in the type or severity of renal lesions.

We conclude that P/calcium restriction at 32% protein intake is beneficial to dogs with chronic renal failure, but that the degree of restriction imposed in group-A dogs of this study did not prevent development of abnormalities. Factors other than dietary P/calcium intake may have a role in progression of renal failure to uremia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research