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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effects of orally administered glucosamine hydrochloride (GIAm)–chondroitin sulfate (sCS) and GIAM–CS–S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) on chemically induced synovitis in the radiocarpal joint of dogs.

Animals

32 adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

For 21 days, all dogs received a sham capsule (3 groups) or GIAm-CS (prior treatment group) in a double-blinded study. Unilateral carpal synovitis was induced by injecting the right radiocarpal joint with chymopapain and the left radiocarpal joint (control joint) with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Joints were injected on alternate days for 3 injections. After induction of synovitis, 2 groups receiving sham treatment were given GIAm-CS or GIAm-CS–SAMe. Another group continued to receive sham capsules (control group). Joint inflammation was quantified, using nuclear scintigraphy, before injection of joints and days 13, 20, 27, 34, 41, and 48 after injection. Lameness evaluations were performed daily.

Results

Dogs given GIAm-CS before induction of synovitis had significantly less scintigraphic activity in the soft-tissue phase 48 days after joint injection, significantly less uptake in the bone phase 41 and 48 days after joint injection, and significantly lower lameness scores on days 12 to 19, 23, and 24 after injection, compared with other groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Analysis of results of this study suggest that prior treatment with GIAm-CS for 21 days had a protective effect against chemically induced synovitis and associated bone remodeling. Prior treatment with GIAm-CS also reduced lameness in dogs with induced synovitis. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1552–1557)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether pulmonary distribution of aerosolized technetium Tc 99m pentetate is improved after inhalation of a single dose of albuterol sulfate in horses susceptible to recurrent airway obstruction (heaves).

Animals

6 horses with heaves and 4 horses with normal respiratory tract function.

Procedure

Images were obtained during ventilation of horses at baseline (maximal change in pleural pressure during tidal breathing [ΔPplmax] > 15 cm H2O) and after aerosolized albuterol sulfate (360 µg) administration, with a 24-hour washout period between experiments. The ΔPplmax was determined prior to the baseline scan, prior to albuterol sulfate administration, and 5 minutes after albuterol sulfate administration. Images were assessed by visual inspection (semiquantitative scoring system) and histogram analysis.

Results

Images obtained from horses with heaves had nonuniform pulmonary distribution of radionuclide characterized by poor penetration in peripheral lung fields and excess deposition in large airways. Histogram analysis of images of the caudal portions of the lungs revealed nonuniform radionuclide deposition in horses with heaves and uniform radionuclide deposition in control horses.

Conclusion

Administration of a single dose of aerosolized albuterol sulfate improved pulmonary distribution of aerosolized radiolabeled pentetate suspension in horses with heaves but did not alter pulmonary distribution in clinically normal horses.

Clinical Relevance

Precedent bronchodilator administration may improve pulmonary distribution of aerosolized, surface-active anti-inflammatory preparations. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:764–769)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To characterize factors that affect solid-phase gastric emptying in healthy cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy and to assess differences in emptying patterns of dry and canned diets.

Animals

20 healthy cats.

Procedure

2 groups of 10 cats each were fed dry or canned diet for at least 2 weeks before scintigraphy was done. Diets were labeled with 99mTc-disofenin. After ingestion of labeled meals, scintigraphic images were obtained at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, then every 30 minutes to 6 hours. Gastric emptying scans were obtained 3 times for each cat for each diet, in a complete crossover design. The T90, T50, and T20 (times when 90, 50, and 20% of initial meal activity remained in the stomach, respectively) were derived from gastric emptying curves fit to nonlinear models. A mixed models approach was used for data analysis.

Results

Gastric emptying was well described by a nonlinear model. Meal size, water intake, and diet type significantly (P < 0.05) effected gastric emptying. The T90, T50, and T20 increased with meal size, regardless of diet type or water intake. Gastric emptying of a dry diet meal took significantly (P < 0.05) longer than that of an isocaloric meal of canned diet, except when meal size was small. Differences in gastric emptying of dry and canned diets varied with the phase (T90 vs T50 vs T20) of emptying.

Conclusion

Water intake, meal size, and diet type significantly influence gastric emptying in healthy cats, and these factors must be considered in analysis of gastric emptying data. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:388–392)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency and sites of communication between the lateral and medial synovial sacs of the metatarsophalangeal or metacarpophalangeal joints in cattle.

Animals

188 limbs were obtained from 55 fresh bovine cadavers submitted for necropsy because of problems unrelated to the fetlocks.

Procedure

In each ox, lateral or medial synovial sacs of each fetlock were randomly assigned. Joints were injected with a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. Communication between 2 joints was determined by presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examining frozen sections and use of positive-contrast arthrography.

Results

Communication between the 2 synovial sacs existed in 186 of 188 (98.9%) specimens. The communication site between lateral and medial synovial sacs was located at the level of the proximal sesamoid bones, between the distal aspect of the interdigital band of the axial branch of the interosseus muscle and the metacarpal or metatarsal bone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Although communication between the lateral and medial synovial sacs did not exist in 2 specimens, the fetlock in cattle can be treated as 1 compartment. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:710–712)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency and sites of communication among the antebrachiocarpal, middle carpal, and carpometacarpal joints in cattle.

Animals

137 limbs were obtained from 72 fresh bovine cadavers submitted for necropsy because of problems unrelated to the carpus.

Procedure

1 of the 3 injection sites was randomly assigned to both carpi of each ox, and a mixture of latex and barium sulfate was injected into the joint. Communication between 2 or more joints was determined by the presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examination of frozen sections, positive-contrast arthrography, and fluoroscopy.

Results

Communication existed among the 3 joints in 18 specimens (13.1%). The middle carpal joint and the carpometacarpal joint always communicated. The antebrachiocarpal joint communicated with the middle carpal joint between the ulnar and intermediate carpal bones. The middle carpal and carpometacarpal joints always communicated between the fourth and fused second and third carpal bones. In a few specimens, additional sites of communication were identified at the palmar aspect of the fourth carpal bone and the fused second and third carpal bones.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Individual anatomic variation of the carpus in cattle should be considered when diagnostic or treatment protocols are established. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:7–10)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the frequency of communication between the lateral and medial femorotibial joints and the femoropatellar joint in cattle.

Design

1 of 3 injection sites was randomly assigned to each ox.

Animais

102 limbs were obtained from 55 fresh bovine cadavers presented for necropsy with problems unrelated to the stifle.

Procedure

The joints were injected with a mixture of latex and barium sulfate. Communication between 2 or more joints was determined by the presence of latex and contrast material in a joint adjacent to the injected joint by examining frozen sections and positive-contrast arthrography.

Results

Communication between the 3 joints was present in 58 (56.9%) limbs. The femoropatellar and the medial femorotibial joints always communicated. Thirteen of 38 (34.2%) specimens injected in the lateral femorotibial joint did not communicate with the 2 other joints. The femoropatellar joint communicated with the lateral and medial femorotibial joints on the distal abaxial aspect of the trochlear ridge.

Conclusion

Individual anatomic variation of the stifle in cattle should be considered when diagnostic or treatment protocols are established.

Clinical Relevance

The lateral femorotibial joint should be treated separately because it does not consistently communicate with the femoropatellar or medial femorotibial joint. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:798–802)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To assess the effect of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube placement on gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Animals

8 healthy adult 3- to 5-year-old cats.

Procedure

Cats were accommodated to the diet for 2 weeks prior to scintigraphy. Caloric needs were divided into 3 feedings/d. Food was withheld for 24 hours after tube placement, then was fed as a third of the caloric needs on day 1, two-thirds on day 2, and full caloric requirements thereafter. Gastric emptying was measured via nuclear scintigraphy. Labeled meals contained 111 MBq (3 mCi) of 99mTc-labeled disofenin. Sixty-second ventral scintigraphic images were acquired immediately, every 20 minutes for the first hour, then every 30 minutes for 4 hours after feeding. Each cat was evaluated 3 times prior to PEG tube placement. Cats were anesthetized, and 16-F mushroom-tipped Pezzar gastrostomy tubes were placed, using a video endoscope. Scintigraphy was repeated on days 1, 4, 7, 11, 14, and 21 after PEG tube placement.

Results

Gastric emptying was faster with a PEG tube in place. Percentage of retained gastric activity was significantly lower after PEG for 150, 180, 210, and 240 minutes versus time before PEG tube placement.

Conclusion

Placement of a PEG tube does not delay gastric emptying in clinically normal cats.

Clinical Relevance

Gastric retention of food, vomiting, and aspiration pneumonia after PEG tube placement may not be related to delayed gastric emptying. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1414–1416)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research