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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Substantial changes in the epizootic characteristics of rabies have transpired in the United States during the past 50 years. Traditional veterinary practices and public health recommendations have effectively controlled rabies in dogs and prevented associated human fatalities; however, they have been unable to adequately address the problem of rabies in wildlife. Attributable in part to a renewed focus on emerging infectious diseases, a conference was held at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 to begin discussion focused on the reemergence of rabies and to formulate new suggestions for prevention and control of rabies in the United States. Three major working groups were formed from a national committee of professionals representing a broad array of biomedical disciplines. These groups concentrated on prevention of rabies in human beings, education, laboratory diagnosis of rabies, and rabies control in animals. The groups described the perceived minimum requirements to promote prevention and control of rabies in the United States into the next century. The following article describes the needs and recommendations identified by the prevention and education working group. Two other articles, scheduled for the Nov 15 and Dec 1, 1999 issues of JAVMA, will relay the needs and recommendations of the working groups on laboratory diagnosis of rabies and rabies in wildlife.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Cats from several sources in Baltimore, Md, were tested for seropositivity to Rochalimaea henselae and R quintana. Co-infection with Toxoplasma gondii or feline immunodeficiency virus was assessed as a risk factor for infection with Rochalimaea spp.

Of 592 cats tested, 87 (14.7%) were seropositive for one or both Rochalimaea spp, although titers to R henselae were significantly higher than those to R quintana. Prevalence of seropositivity increased significantly with cat age and weight and was associated with seropositivity to T gondii but was not associated with gender. Prevalence of seropositivity was similar (12.5 to 14.4%) among groups of cats with some history of human contact but was higher among feral cats (44.4%). Whether cats are reservoirs or mechanical vectors of Rochalimaea spp that can cause diseases in people is still uncertain, but these findings indicated widespread infection of cats and suggested possible modes of transmission for Rochalimaea spp among cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To ascertain whether dogs are naturally infected with Ehrlichia chaffeensis.


74 dogs from 5 animal shelters and 1 kennel in 3 cities and 3 counties in southeastern Virginia were tested during June 1991.


Blood was drawn from 74 dogs; 73 were tested serologically for antibodies reactive to E chaffeensis and E canis, and 38 were tested for the presence of E chaffeensis, E canis, and E ewingii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serologic testing by indirect fluorescent antibody assay. Nested PCR used Ehrlichia-wide outside primers to detect initial products, followed by use of species-specific primers for identification.


28 (38.4%) dogs had a positive test result (minimum titer, ≥ 1:64) for antibodies reactive to E chaffeensis, and 28 (38.4%) had a positive reaction to E canis. PCR analysis indicated that 8 (42.1 %) dogs were positive for E chaffeensis and 6 dogs (31.6%) were positive for E ewingii. All dogs had negative results of the PCR test for E canis.


Dogs are potential reservoirs of E chaffeensis.

Clinical Relevance

Canine E chaffeensis infection may be more prevalent than E canis or E ewingii infection in this region of the United States. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1175-1179)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research