Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: J. W. Grant x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective

To develop a noninvasive method to detect disaccharide malabsorption in dogs by measuring hydrogen concentration ([H2]) in exhaled breath before and after experimentally induced disaccharide malabsorption.

Animals

8 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

[H2] was measured every 30 minutes for 8 hours after administration of disaccharide solutions (lactose, 0.5 g/kg of body weight; lactose, 1.0 g/kg; sucrose, 2.0 g/kg; maltose, 1.5 g/kg; and lactose [0.5 g/kg] and sucrose [2.0 g/kg]) to determine reference ranges of [H2] for each solution, which were compared with [H2] in dogs with experimentally induced disaccharide malabsorption. To induce disaccharide malabsorption, dogs were given a mild overdose of lactose (1.5 g/kg) or a disaccharidase inhibitor. In the latter experiment, acarbose (10 mg/kg, PO) was given with the combination of lactose (0.5 g/kg) and sucrose (2 g/kg), and with maltose (1.5 g/kg).

Results

Overdosing with lactose resulted in [H2] persistently outside the reference range for lactose in 5 of 8 dogs. Acarbose administration resulted in [H2] persistently outside the reference range in 7 of 8 dogs that received a combination of sucrose and lactose but did not consistently affect [H2] after administration of maltose.

Conclusions

Disaccharide malabsorption resulted in [H2] outside the reference ranges in most of the adult dogs studied, suggesting that the technique may be useful in detecting naturally occurring disaccharidase deficiency. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:836–840)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Objectives

To determine accuracy of abdominal radiography in locating radiopaque markers in the gastrointestinal tract and to assess correlation between gastric emptying rate of radiopaque markers and that of canned food.

Animals

17 healthy dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm markers and ten 5-mm markers mixed in sufficient food to meet 25% of their daily caloric intake. They were then euthanatized by administration of an overdose of barbiturate at 1, 2, 5, 8, or 12 hours after eating and the abdomen was radiographed. The stomach, small intestine, and large intestine were then separated and radiographed in isolation. The wet and dry weights of the stomach contents were determined. The apparent and actual locations of the markers and the gastric emptying rates of markers, wet matter, and dry matter were compared, using rank correlation.

Results

All comparisons indicated significant (P < 0.025), high correlation coefficients (> 0.92). The mean difference between the apparent and actual locations of the markers was < 3% for all comparisons. The mean difference between the percentage of small markers and large markers retained in the stomach and that of dry matter was 7.8 (SD, 6.2; range, 0 to 18)% and 11.9 (SD, 12.5; range, 0 to 44)%, respectively.

Conclusions

The gastric emptying and orocolic transit rates of the markers were accurately predicted by abdominal radiography. The gastric emptying rate of the diet and the small markers and, to a lesser extent, the large markers was closely correlated.

Clinical Relevance

When fed with a special canned food diet, radiopaque markers can be used to assess the gastric emptying rate of food with sufficient accuracy for clinical purposes. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1359–1363)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To study biomechanical characteristics of the normal and surgically altered canine thoracolumbar vertebral column to determine the effects of surgery and trauma on lateral stability.

Animals

The T13-L1 vertebral motion units of 48 mixed-breed dogs were dissected free of surrounding musculature and prepared for biomechanical testing by cross-pinning the vertebral bodies and mounting in polymethylmethacrylate.

Procedure

Normal and surgically altered spinal specimens were subjected to lateral bending. The mean slope of the bending moment versus angular displacement curve and the load to failure were compared between treatment groups and significance was determined by the method of least squares (P < 0.05). Specimens were surgically altered by facetectomy, lateral fenestration, diskectomy, and combinations of these procedures. Each specimen was subjected to lateral bending to failure at a rate of 2.5 cm/min in a swing arm bending jig designed to simulate 4-point bending and subject the specimen to pure bending.

Results

Only specimens undergoing diskectomy had a significant decrease in slope and load at failure. Unilateral and bilateral facetectomies and fenestration induced a nonsignificant decrease in stiffness, compared with control specimens.

Conclusions

Fenestrations and facetectomies do not appear to increase the risk of injury to the canine thoracolumbar spinal cord during lateral bending.

Clinical Relevance

Fenestrations and facetectomies, as used in routine laminectomies, may be performed without concern for significant destabilization of the spine in lateral bending; however, it is possible that thoracolumbar spinal fractures involving only the vertebral body may significantly destabilize the spine in all modes of bending. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1228-1232)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine uroplakin III expression, potential etiologic factors, biological behavior, and treatment response of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in the abdominal wall (ABWTCC) in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—24 dogs with TCC of the urinary tract that also had histopathologic confirmation of ABWTCC.

Procedures—Medical records, histologic slides, radiographs, and ultrasonographic images of dogs with ABWTCC between July 1, 1985, and December 31, 2010, were reviewed. In available tissue specimens, immunohistochemistry was used to detect uroplakin III expression in the ABWTCC and in the primary tumor.

Results—The ABWTCC lesions ranged from < 2 to > 20 cm in diameter. Uroplakin III was expressed in 19 of 20 primary tumors and 17 of 17 ABWTCCs. Transitional cell carcinoma in the abdominal wall developed significantly more often in dogs that had undergone cystotomy (18/177 [10.2%]) than in those that had not (6/367 [1.6%]). In 1 dog that had not undergone cystotomy, TCC had invaded through the urinary bladder wall and spread down the median ligament to the abdominal wall. None of 18 dogs that received anticancer drugs had remission of the ABWTCC once clinically detected; median survival time after ABWTCC detection was 57 days (range, 0 to 324 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ABWTCC is uncommon, but once TCC becomes established and clinically detectable in the abdominal wall, it carries a poor prognosis. It is crucial to minimize risk of TCC seeding at surgery. Percutaneous sampling of TCC should be avoided. Uroplakin III is commonly expressed in ABWTCC.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association