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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To better characterize the source of the large nonparietal secretory response to pentagastrin (PG) expressed in gastric contents of cannulated horses.

Animals

Adult cross-bred horses: 4 geldings and 1 mare.

Procedure

Horses were prepared by surgical insertion of a silastic gastric cannula from which gastric contents after feed was withheld could be continuously collected by gravity drainage. During experiments, the horses were lightly restrained in stocks, the gastric cannula was opened, and a catheter was inserted into a jugular vein. Over the next 5 hours, gastric contents were collected in 15-minute aliquots for which volume, pH, [Na+], and [K+] were measured. During the first hour, treatment was not administered. At the start of the second hour, either 0.5 mg of omeprazole (OME; dissolved in glycerol formal)/kg of body weight, or 0.9% NaCI (PSS) of comparable volume, was given IV at random as a bolus. At the start of the third hour, IV infusion of PG (6 µg/kg/h) was started and continued for the next 2 hours.

Results

The response to PG in the PSS-treated horses was similar to that previously seen-significant decrease in pH and increase in volume of gastric contents, and no change in [K+] and [Na+], but a modest volume-related increase in their respective outputs. After OME treatment, pH of the contents increased sharply and remained between 5 and 6 throughout PG infusion. Sodium concentration significantly increased after OME and virtually paralleled the pH response throughout the rest of the experiment; volume of gastric contents significantly increased in response to PG infusion and resulted in a significant increase in Na output. There was no change in K output in OME-treated animals.

Conclusions

PG induces a marked, nonparietal, secretory response into the gastric contents of cannulated horses. The volume and [Na+] of this response was maintained after pretreatment with OME, although the pH of the contents became basic, indicating that this nonparietal response is not mediated by an OME-sensitive proton pump. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1640–1644)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine relative effects of ring diameter and wire tension on axial biomechanical properties of 4-ring circular external skeletal fixator constructs.

Sample Population—4-ring circular external skeletal fixator constructs and artificial bone models.

Procedure—4-ring constructs were assembled, using 50-, 66-, 84-, or 118-mm-diameter rings. Two 1.6-mm-diameter fixation wires were attached to opposing surfaces of each ring at intersection angles of 90o and placed through a gap-fracture bone model. Three examples of each construct were loaded in axial compression at 7 N/s to a maximum load of 400 N at each of 4 wire tensions (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg). Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1 mm of displacement, displacement at 400 N).

Results—Ring diameter and wire tension had a significant effect on all response variables and had a significant interaction for construct stiffness and displacement at 400 N. Significant differences within all response variables were seen among all 4 ring diameters and all 4 wire tensions. As ring diameter increased, effect of increasing wire tension on gap stiffness and gap displacement at 400 N decreased. Ring diameter had a greater effect than wire tension on all response variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although effects of wire tension decrease as ring diameter increases, placing tension on wires in larger ring constructs is important because these constructs are inherently less stiff. The differential contribution of ring diameter, wire tension, and their interactions must be considered when using circular external skeletal fixators. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1025–1030)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Thirty-five newborn foals were assigned to 1 of 3 groups and treated with 0.9% NaCl solution (saline; group 1; n = 12), oxytetracycline (44 mg/kg of body weight; group 2; n = 12), or 2-pyrrolidone (oxytetracycline vehicle; group 3; n = 11) in saline solution during the first 36 hours after birth. Serum biochemical analyses were performed on samples obtained from group-1 and group-2 foals before treatment and 24 and 96 hours after treatment. Lateral to medial radiographic views of the forelimbs were obtained before treatment and 24 and 96 hours after treatment in all foals. Metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joint angles were measured from the radiographic images. Significant changes in blood chemistry values, other than those typically observed in newborn foals, were not detected. A significant decrease in mean metacarpophalangeal joint angle was observed in foals 24 hours after treatment with oxytetracycline, compared with that in foals of groups 1 and 3. The mean metacarpophalangeal joint angle returned to pretreatment values by 96 hours. Oxytetracycline appears to be an effective method for obtaining a short-term moderate decrease in metacarpophalangeal joint angle in newborn foals.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Loop colostomy was performed in 10 horses as treatment for grade-III rectal tears (n = 6 horses), small-colon infarction (n = 2 horses), perirectal abscess and stenosis (n = 1 horse), and small-colon stricture (n = 1 horse). In 7 horses, the colostomy was constructed through a single incision low in the left flank, with closure of the incision around the stoma (single-incision technique). In 3 horses, 2 of which had colostomy performed as a standing procedure, the selected segment of small colon was placed from a flank incision into a separate, small incision low in the left flank (double-incision technique).

Five horses underwent colostomy reversal (at 18 to 63 days) and 2 of these horses, both with grade-III rectal tears, recovered completely. Of 8 horses that did not survive, 6 died from the primary disease or associated complications. Technical problems associated with colostomy accounted for death of 2 horses. One horse had gastric rupture attributable to suture occlusion of the small intestine after colostomy reversal, and another horse had complications of incisional infection after repair of a peristomal hernia. Small-colon prolapse through the stoma necessitated premature reversal of the colostomy in a horse that was euthanatized because of worsening laminitis. Minor complications of the colostomy procedure were partial stomal dehiscence (n = 4 horses), partial dehiscence of the flank wound after colostomy reversal (n = 2 horses), and small ventral midline hernia after colostomy reversal (n = 1 horse).

Loop colostomy may be of benefit to horses with rectal tears, provided it is done soon after the tear occurs. The double-incision technique for loop colostomy is recommended, because it appeared to reduce the risks of peristomal herniation and stomal prolapse. Other recommendations are made to reduce complications of colostomy and facilitate reversal.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association