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Summary

Distribution of pulmonary nerves immunoreactive for either substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide was determined, using immunohistochemical methods on healthy lungs from adult equids. The overall patterns of distribution of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity were similar. Distribution of immunoreactive nerves was not uniform throughout the lungs; nerve fibers immunoreactive for these peptides were more frequently observed near the hilus of the lung than in the caudal lobes or in the periphery of the lung. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for substance P or calcitonin gene-related peptide were most abundant in the lamina propria of the trachea and larger airways, particularly within and directly below the airway epithelium; they were also frequently associated with bronchial and pulmonary vessels. Presence of nerve fibers immunoreactive for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in peribronchial neural ganglia indicated that these sensory nerves may modulate parasympathetic regulation of pulmonary function. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide were, therefore, well placed to detect inhaled agents and to contribute to the pulmonary response to irritants and pathogens.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Immunohistochemical methods were used to determine the distribution of pulmonary nerves containing either an enzymatic marker of adrenergic nerves, dopamine β hydroxylase, or the putative neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y in 7 equids with healthy lungs. Nerves immunoreactive for these substances were found on airway smooth muscle in nearly all the samples of healthy equine lung examined. These nerves were generally more numerous in the larger airways but could be detected even in noncartilaginous bronchioles. Pulmonary and bronchial vessels also contained numerous immunoreactive nerves. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that dopamine β-hydroxylase- and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerves may be involved in the regulation of airway and vascular diameter in equids.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

To determine whether the distal interphalangeal (dip) joint directly or indirectly communicates with the navicular bursa (bursa podotrochlearis) and to identify sensory nerves in these synovial structures that might be desensitized by intra-articular injections of anesthetics, Evans blue dye in physiologic saline solution, Luxol fast blue dye with mepivicaine, or commercial latex was injected into the dip joint (5 ml) or the navicular bursa (3 ml) of 152 digits obtained from horses or ponies at necropsy. The digits were frozen, cut with a band saw, and examined for distribution of dye or latex.

Of 122 digits that had injections into the dip joint, 120 did not have evidence of a communication between the dip joint and either the navicular bursa or digital flexor tendon sheath. Of 16 digits that had injections into the navicular bursa, 14 did not have evidence of a direct communication with the dip joint.

Injection of dye into the dip joint resulted in diffusion of dye and staining of other structures, including the synovial linings of the collateral sesamoidean ligaments and of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament and the medullary cavity of the navicular bone. In addition, a blue tinge was observed in the navicular bursa after dye was injected into the dip joint, suggesting an indirect, and potentially functional, communication between the dip joint and the navicular bursa. Injection of dye into the navicular bursa resulted in staining only of the bursa's synovial lining.

Immunocytochemical analysis revealed nerves immunoreactive for the peptidergic neurotransmitters substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide located in structures that were stained after dye was injected into the dip joint. Our results suggest that sensory nerves innervating the synovial membranes along the dorsal aspect of the collateral sesamoidean ligaments, sensory nerves of the distal sesamoidean impar ligament, and sensory nerves that directly innervate parts of the navicular bone would, in all likelihood, be desensitized by injections of anesthetics into the dip joint. Therefore, the issue of a communication between the dip joint and the navicular bursa becomes less important during clinical evaluation of syndromes associated with pathologic changes in these 2 synovial cavities (eg, navicular syndrome).

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Immunocytochemical analysis of equine synovial membranes revealed presence of several neuropeptides, including substance P (sp), neurokinin A, and neuropeptide Y, in nerves of the radiocarpal, middle carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joints. Within the subsynovium, these neuropeptides were located perivascularly, whereas in the fronds, only neuropeptide Y was restricted to the vessels of the synovial membrane. Only sp and neurokinin A were found in the intimal layer. The intimal layer of the metacarpophalangeal joint contained more sp-immunoreactive fibers than were observed in the intimal layer of the radiocarpal joint. Substance P also was detected in the synovial fluid from all 3 joints, but mean ± sd concentrations were significantly different only between the middle carpal joint (37.56 ± 5.48 fmol/ml; n = 6) and the metacarpophalangeal joint (55.80 ± 8.33 fmol/ml; n = 5) and between the middle carpal joint and the radiocarpal joint (52.43 ± 14.60 fmol/ml; n = 7).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To gain a better understanding of the role of interpersonal trust in veterinarian-client interactions during routine health-care visits, develop a measure of trust uniquely suited to the context of veterinary medicine, and interpret the actions, beliefs, and perceptions that capture client trust toward veterinarians.

Design—Correlational study.

Sample—103 veterinary students and 19 standardized clients with pets from a college of veterinary medicine at a large public Midwestern university.

Procedures—A measure of trust specific to veterinarian-client interactions was constructed on the basis of preexisting conceptualizations of the construct and administered to veterinary students and standardized clients following interactions in 2 medical scenarios in a high-fidelity simulated animal health clinic. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to validate the measure of trust, and hierarchic linear modeling was used to explore indicators of standardized client trust perceptions in one of the scenarios.

Results—Factor analysis revealed that the measure captured 2 perceptions indicative of trust in veterinary contexts: professionalism and technical candor. Students who had behaviors reflecting these factors as well as those who were perceived as more technically competent were seen as more trustworthy by standardized clients.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The development of trustworthy relationships between clients and veterinarians is important to the continued growth and success of the profession. By identifying characteristics of veterinarian trustworthiness and developing related measurement tools, proactive approaches to monitoring veterinarian-client relations can be implemented and incorporated into veterinary training and practice programs to identify areas for improvement.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To validate use of canine colonic biopsy specimens obtained via endoscopy as a source of mucosal lymphocytes (ML) for flow cytometric analysis.

Sample Population

Mucosal biopsy specimens from 10 adult dogs.

Procedure

Mucosal lymphocyte subsets obtained from excised colon were compared with ML subsets obtained from biopsy specimens obtained by use of an endoscopic forceps (6 dogs). Endoscopic colonic biopsy specimens from 4 other dogs were used to define whether obtained ML were predominantly of intraepithelial or lamina propria origin. Mucosal lymphocytes were isolated and labeled, using commercially available monoclonal antibodies directed against canine cell surface antigens. Lymphocyte subsets (cytotoxic or helper T cells; B cells) were determined by use of flow cytometric analysis.

Results

A large number of viable ML was obtained after dissociation of the colonic epithelium from excised colon (45.5 ± 21.5 × 106) and endoscopic (7.2 ± 3.4 × 106) biopsy specimens. Lymphocyte subsets obtained with both methods were identical for each dog and consisted predominantly of intraepithelial lymphocytes, with some lymphocytes from the lamina propria. Collagenase digestion of excised colon also yielded a large number of viable lymphocytes from the lamina propria (56.7 ± 20.4 × 106), but collagenase digestion of endoscopic biopsy specimens was less rewarding.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance

A representative sample of viable intraepithelial ML is obtainable from endoscopic biopsy specimens. Flow cytometric analysis, a minimally invasive technique, can be used to study ML of client-owned animals. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:346-353).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research