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  • Author or Editor: I. C. A. Martin x
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To determine the sonographic dimensions and an imaging protocol for the pyloric region of the normal canine stomach, and whether sonography could be used to demonstrate antroduodenal motility.


20 clinically normal, mixed-breed dogs (mean ± SD, 15.1 ± 7.1 kg).


In vitro sonographic observations of the gastroduodenal junction were made after each had been mounted on an acrylic rack placed in an organ bath. The in vivo studies were performed in anesthetized dogs.


The wall of the pyloric antrum was 4 to 5 mm thick, that of the pylorus was 3 to 4 mm thick, and that of the cranial part of the duodenum was 2 to 3 mm thick. The pyloric canal had a length of 16 to 17 mm and overall in vivo diameter of 22 mm, and the muscular part of its wall was 2 to 3 mm thick. In vivo sonographic images were best made with the dog in dorsal recumbency, tilted 30° to the right-the feasibility study clearly demonstrated the form and function of antroduodenal motility, including gastric and duodenal peristalsis, opening and closing of the pyloric canal, and duodenogastric reflux of fluid and gas.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The use of a routine imaging protocol, accompanied by mensuration of the gastroduodenal junction, will permit an opinion to be given as to whether the structure and function of the region are normal or whether pathologic change exists. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1266-1273)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Results of radiologic and anatomic studies of each cubital articulation (elbow) of a group of 50 adult cat cadavers indicated that a sesamoid bone may be located in a constantly present sesamoid cartilage associated with the tendon of origin of the supinator muscle. Radiography revealed a sesamoid bone in 40 of the 100 tendons of origin of the supinator muscles dissected from the elbows. The sesamoid bone articulated with the craniolateral aspect of the head of the radius, and the larger sesamoid cartilage, which contained the bone, articulated with the head of the radius and the capitulum of the humerus. Of several possible functions of the sesamoid cartilage (bone), it was considered that protection of the craniolateral part of the humeroradial articulation and maintenance of the complex anatomic system during joint movement were important. In radiographic views of the elbows of lame cats, the sesamoid bone should not be mistaken for a chip fracture or an osteocartilaginous loose body.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Observations were made in dorsal and sagittal planes of the ultrasonographic mean gray scale of the flexor tendons and ligaments of the metacarpal regions of 5 Thoroughbred geldings, during weight bearing and nonweight bearing. In images made when the horses were nonweight bearing, the mean gray scale of the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons and accessory ligament was significantly reduced, but that of the interosseous medius muscle (suspensory ligament) was not. When relaxed, collagen fiber bundles in the tendons and ligaments acted as diffuse, rather than specular, reflectors of ultrasonic waves leading to localized regions of hypoechogenicity and a consequent reduction in mean gray scale. The suspensory ligament, however, remained under tension during nonweight bearing and so mean gray scale was not reduced. Analyses of the ultrasonographic mean gray scale have the potential to provide quantitative data relating to the changes in echogenicity that develop in injured equine tendons and ligaments.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association