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  • Author or Editor: Hussni O. Mohammed x
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A retrospective study was designed to determine the distribution of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis among the equine population in New York state, and to identify factors associated with risk of disease. Serum samples submitted to the diagnostic laboratory of the university during the period from January 1985 through December 1986 were examined for antibodies to Ehrlichia risticii, using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique. Factors evaluated included geographic origin and date of submission of the sample, and age, breed, and sex of the horse. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify which factors were significantly associated with the risk of seropositivity to E risticii, while simultaneously controlling for other factors.

Of the 2,579 tested samples, 1,950 (76%) had positive results. Factors significantly associated with risk of seropositivity to E risticii were: breed of the horse (Thoroughbreds were 3 times more likely to have been exposed to E risticii, compared with non-Standardbred, non-Thoroughbred breeds); sex (female horses were 2.7 times more likely to have been exposed, compared with male horses); age of the horse (the risk of being exposed to E risticii increased with age, peaked at around 12 years, and decreased thereafter); and month of submission (horses tested during November and December had the highest odds of being seropositive [odds ratio = 2.1], and horses tested during March through April were least likely to be seropositive [odds ratio = 0.5], compared with horses tested during January and February).

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To develop a reference database for characterization of bovine Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae strains by automated ribotyping and to use it to assess the discriminatory power of this typing procedure and the geographic distribution of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae strains in New York state dairy herds.

Sample Population

22 commercial dairy herds.


Isolates of Sta aureus and Str agalactiae from bovine milk were identified by standard bacteriologic procedures, then typed by automated ribotyping. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was tested in vitro. Two indicators made from the data were percentage of farms with multiple ribotypes and percentage of single ribotypes found in several geographic regions. Standard bacteriologic diagnosis, automated ribotyping, and determination of antibiograms (Kirby-Bauer method) also were done.


Of 50 Sta aureus and 44 Str agalactiae isolates from composite milk samples of 12 and 10 herds, respectively, 18 and 14 ribotypes, respectively, were identified. The discriminatory power of automated ribotyping was approximately 0.96 (Hunter-Gaston's formula). A higher percentage of herds with Sta aureus had multiple ribotypes. The most common Sta aureus ribotypes tended to have broader geographic distribution. Some Sta aureus ribotypes were significantly associated with antibiotic resistance profiles.


Automated ribotyping appears to characterize bovine strains of bacteria associated with intramammary infections with a high discriminatory index. Potential applications include identification of strains that appear to have broad geographic distribution suggesting interfarm transfer, discrimination between recurrent versus new intramammary infections (ie, for control of Str agalactiae and Sta aureus), and evaluation of antibiotic therapy. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:482–487)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research