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To evaluate changes in ground reaction forces (GRFs) in relation to gait velocity using 2 force plates (FPs) for healthy Beagles.


18 healthy Beagles were included (body weight, 10.45 ± 1.28 kg; age, 26 ± 11 months).


Ten GRF parameters were measured at three gait velocities (walk, 0.9 to 1.2 m/s; trot 1, 1.6 to 2.0 m/s; and trot 2, 2.1 to 2.5 m/s): peak lateral force (PLF), peak medial force (PMF), lateral impulse (LI), medial impulse (MI), peak propulsive force (PPF), peak braking force (PBF), propulsive impulse (PI), braking impulse (BI), peak vertical force (PVF), and vertical impulse (VI).


As velocity increased, the PVF of all limbs increased, the VI of all limbs decreased, and the PPF of the forelimbs increased. At all velocities, PBF and BI were significantly higher than the PPF and PI in forelimbs; however, PBF and BI were significantly lower than the PPF and PI in hindlimbs. There were no significant differences in the PLF, PMF, LI, and MI of the forelimbs and hindlimbs among all velocities. The PLF was significantly higher than the PMF of forelimbs during trot 1 and trot 2.


These results may be useful when comparing healthy Beagles with diseased ones when premorbid data are not available. Because the forelimbs are mainly responsible for the braking force, it is suggested that weight bearing is more stable in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs, which are mainly responsible for the propulsive force, and that a greater force is generated laterally than medially during trot.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate effects of dietary carbohydrate on urine volume; struvite crystal formation; and calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium balance in clinically normal cats.

Animals—21 healthy adult cats (15 sexually intact males and 6 sexually intact females).

Procedure—Diets containing no carbohydrate source (control diet), control plus starch, or control plus fiber were given in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design. The diets were available ad libitum in study 1 (n = 12) and given under restrictions in study 2 (9) to equalize daily intakes of crude protein among the 3 groups. Formation of struvite crystals and balance of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium were measured.

Results—Urine volume was lower in the starch group and fiber group in study 1, whereas no differences were detected among the groups in study 2. Urinary pH and struvite activity product were higher in the starch group in both studies, and the fiber group also had higher struvite activity product in study 2. In both studies, urinary concentrations of HCl-insoluble sediment were higher in the starch group and fiber group. In the fiber group, a net loss of body calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium was detected in study 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Starch and fiber in diets potentially stimulate formation of struvite crystals. Hence, reducing dietary carbohydrate is desirable to prevent struvite urolith formation. In addition, a net loss of body calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium during feeding of the fiber diet suggests that dietary inclusion of insoluble fiber could increase macromineral requirements of cats. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:138–142)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research