OBJECTIVE To investigate regional differences of relative metabolite concentrations in the brain of healthy dogs with short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 10 Beagles.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H MRS was performed at the level of the right and left basal ganglia, right and left thalamus, right and left parietal lobes, occipital lobe, and cerebellum. Data were analyzed with an automated fitting method (linear combination model). Metabolite concentrations relative to water content were obtained, including N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the sum of glutamine and glutamate (glutamine-glutamate complex), and glutathione. Metabolite ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated. Concentration differences between right and left hemispheres and sexes were evaluated with a Wilcoxon signed rank test and among various regions of the brain with an independent t test and 1-way ANOVA.
RESULTS No significant differences were detected between sexes and right and left hemispheres. All metabolites, except the glutamine-glutamate complex and glutathione, had regional concentrations that differed significantly. The creatine concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and cerebellum and lowest in the parietal lobes. The N-acetyl aspartate concentration was highest in the parietal lobes and lowest in the cerebellum. Total choline concentration was highest in the basal ganglia and lowest in the occipital lobe.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Metabolite concentrations differed among brain parenchymal regions in healthy dogs. This study may provide reference values for clinical and research studies involving 1H MRS performed at 3.0 T.
Objective—To investigate clinical use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and to compare metabolic brain bioprofiles of dogs with and without hepatic encephalopathy.
Animals—6 dogs with hepatic encephalopathy and 12 control dogs.
Procedures—Conventional MRI and single-voxel 1H MRS were performed with a 3-T magnet. Images for routine MRI planes and sequences were obtained. Single-voxel 1H MRS was performed with a point-resolved sequence with a short echo time (35 milliseconds) and voxel of interest placement at the level of the basal ganglia. Metabolites of interest included the glutamine-glutamate complex (sum quantification of glutamate and glutamine), myoinositol, N-acetyl aspartate, total choline, and creatine. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software, and metabolite concentration relative to water and ratios with creatine as the reference metabolite were calculated.
Results—Compared with control dogs, dogs with hepatic encephalopathy had specific changes, which included significantly higher concentration relative to water of the glutamine-glutamate complex and significantly lower concentration of myoinositol. Choline and N-acetyl aspartate concentrations were also slightly lower in dogs with hepatic encephalopathy than in control dogs. No differences in creatine concentration were detected between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—1H MRS aided in the diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy in dogs, and findings supported the assumption that ammonia is a neurotoxin that manifests via glutamine-glutamate complex derangements. Use of 1H MRS may provide clinically relevant information in patients with subclinical hepatic encephalopathy, equivocal results of bile acids tests, and equivocal ammonia concentrations or may be helpful in monitoring efficacy of medical management.
OBJECTIVE To investigate metabolite concentrations of the brains of dogs with intracranial neoplasia or noninfectious meningoencephalitis by use of short echo time, single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) at 3.0 T.
ANIMALS 29 dogs with intracranial lesions (14 with neoplasia [3 oligodendromas, 3 glioblastomas multiformes, 3 astrocytomas, 2 lymphomas, and 3 meningiomas] and 15 is with noninfectious meningoencephalitis) and 10 healthy control dogs.
PROCEDURES Short echo time, single voxel 1H-MRS at 3.0 T was performed on neoplastic and noninfectious inflammatory intracranial lesions identified with conventional MRI. Metabolites of interest included N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), total choline, creatine, myoinositol, the glutamine-glutamate complex (Glx), glutathione, taurine, lactate, and lipids. Data were analyzed with postprocessing fitting algorithm software. Metabolite concentrations relative to brain water content were calculated and compared with results for the healthy control dogs, which had been previously evaluated with the same 1H MRS technique.
RESULTS NAA, creatine, and Glx concentrations were reduced in the brains of dogs with neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis, whereas choline concentration was increased. Concentrations of these metabolites differed significantly between dogs with neoplasia and dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis. Concentrations of NAA, creatine, and Glx were significantly lower in dogs with neoplasia, whereas the concentration of choline was significantly higher in dogs with neoplasia. Lipids were predominantly found in dogs with high-grade intra-axial neoplasia, meningioma, and necrotizing meningoencephalitis. A high concentration of taurine was found in 10 of 15 dogs with noninfectious meningoencephalitis.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE1H MRS provided additional metabolic information about intracranial neoplasia and noninfectious meningoencephalitis in dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare stroke volume (SV) calculated on the basis of cardiac morphology determined by MRI and results of phase-contrast angiography (PCA) of ventricular inflow and outflow in dogs.
ANIMALS 10 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cardiac MRI was performed twice on each Beagle. Cine gradient echo sequences of both ventricles in short-axis planes were used for morphological quantification of SVs by assessment of myocardial contours. From the long-axis plane, SVs in 4-chamber and left ventricular 2-chamber views were acquired at end diastole and end systole. For calculation of SV on the basis of blood flow, PCA was performed for cardiac valves.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for SV quantified on the basis of blood flow were similar in all valves (aortic, 17.8 ± 4.1 mL; pulmonary, 17.2 ± 5.4 mL; mitral, 17.2 ± 3.9 mL; and tricuspid, 16.9 ± 5.1 mL). Morphological quantification of SV in the short-axis plane yielded significant differences between left (13.4 ± 2.7 mL) and right (8.6 ± 2.4 mL) sides. Morphological quantification of left ventricular SV in the long-axis plane (15.2 ± 3.3 mL and 20.7 ± 3.8 mL in the 4- and 2-chamber views) yielded variable results, which differed significantly from values for flow-based quantification, except for values for the morphological 4-chamber view and PCA for the atrioventricular valves, for which no significant differences were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In contrast to quantification based on blood flow, calculation on the basis of morphology for the short-axis plane significantly underestimated SV, probably because of through-plane motion and complex right ventricular anatomy.
OBJECTIVE To describe perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver, spleen, and kidneys of healthy adult male cats as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.
ANIMALS 12 healthy adult male cats.
PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized. Morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen was performed. A region of interest (ROI) was established on MRI images for each of the following structures: liver, spleen, cortex and medulla of both kidneys, and skeletal muscle. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma and kidneys on diffusion-weighted MRI images. The normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma.
RESULTS Perfusion-weighted MRI variables differed among the 5 ROIs. Median ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 1.38 × 10−3 mm2/s, and mean ± SD normalized ADC for the liver was 1.86 ± 0.18. Median ADC of the renal cortex and renal medulla was 1.65 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.93 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of structures in the cranial aspect of the abdomen of healthy adult male cats. Additional studies of cats of different sex and age groups as well as with and without cranial abdominal pathological conditions are necessary to validate and refine these findings.
To determine the change in mean hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) during body weight gain in cats by use of MRI.
12 purpose-bred adult neutered male cats.
The cats underwent general health and MRI examination at time 0 (before dietary intervention) and time 1 (after 40 weeks of being fed high-energy food ad libitum). Sequences included multiple-echo gradient-recalled echo MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with 3 b values (0, 400, and 800 s/mm2). Variables (body weight and the HFF and ADC in selected regions of interest in the liver parenchyma) were compared between time points by Wilcoxon paired-sample tests. Relationships among variables were assessed with generalized mixed-effects models.
Median body weight was 4.5 and 6.5 kg, mean ± SD HFF was 3.39 ± 0.89% and 5.37 ± 1.92%, and mean ± SD hepatic ADC was 1.21 ± 0.08 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.01 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2/s at times 0 and 1, respectively. Significant differences between time points were found for body weight, HFF, and ADC. The HFF was positively associated with body weight and ADC was negatively associated with HFF.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Similar to findings in people, cats had decreasing hepatic ADC as HFF increased. Protons associated with fat tissue in the liver may reduce diffusivity, resulting in a lower ADC than in liver with lower HFF. Longer studies and evaluation of cats with different nutritional states are necessary to further investigate these findings.
To describe diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland of healthy sexually intact adult dogs as determined by use of diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted MRI.
12 healthy sexually intact adult Beagles.
Ultrasonography of the prostate gland was performed. Subsequently, each dog was anesthetized, and morphological, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the caudal aspect of the abdomen was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated for the prostate gland parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images in the central ventral and peripheral dorsal areas. Perfusion variables were examined in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the ventral and dorsal areas of the prostate gland and in the gluteal musculature. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI.
Results of ultrasonographic examination of the prostate gland revealed no abnormalities for any dog. Median apparent diffusion coefficient of the prostate gland was 1.51 × 10−3 mm2/s (range, 1.04 × 10−3 mm2/s to 1.86 × 10−3 mm2/s). Perfusion-weighted MRI variables for the ROIs differed between the prostate gland parenchyma and gluteal musculature.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results provided baseline information about diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland in healthy sexually intact adult dogs. Additional studies with dogs of various ages and breeds, with and without abnormalities of the prostate gland, will be necessary to validate these findings and investigate clinical applications.
PROCEDURES Each dog underwent 3 iohexol-injection protocols (700 mg of iodine/kg administered at a constant rate over 20 seconds, 700 mg of iodine/kg administered following an exponentially decelerated injection over 20 seconds, and 350 mg of iodine/kg at a constant rate over 10 seconds) during dynamic, whole renal-volume CT in randomized order with an interval of ≥ 7 days between experiments. Values of GFR determined from Patlak plots derived by use of 4 measurement techniques (standard transverse section, optimized transverse section, dorsal reconstruction, and volume calculation techniques) were compared.
RESULTS The measurement technique influenced the mean ± SD GFR results (standard transverse section technique, 2.49 ± 0.54 mL/kg/min; optimized transverse section technique, 2.72 ± 0.52 mL/kg/min; dorsal reconstruction technique, 3.00 ± 0.60 mL/kg/min, and volume calculation technique, 2.48 ± 0.51 mL/kg/min). The lower iodine dose resulted in a significantly higher GFR value (3.00 ± 0.65 mL/kg/min), compared with that achieved with either higher dose administration (constant rate injection, 2.54 ± 0.45 mL/kg/min and exponentially decelerated injection, 2.47 ± 0.48 mL/kg/min).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In healthy Beagles, the CT-derived GFR measurements obtained after injection of a full dose of contrast medium were reduced, compared with measurements obtained after injection of a half dose. This finding is important with regard to potential nephrotoxicosis in dogs with impaired renal function and for GFR measurement with CT-contrast medium protocols.