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OBJECTIVE To identify seizure etiologic classification for cats that developed seizures at < 12 months of age and describe the long-term outcome of affected cats.

DESIGN Retrospective cohort study.

ANIMALS 15 client-owned cats with seizures that began at < 12 months of age.

PROCEDURES Information on each cat was obtained from the medical records, veterinarians, and owners. Inclusion required an onset of seizures before 12 months of age and a complete medical record, including a final diagnosis.

RESULTS 7 of the 15 cats had structural epilepsy, 4 had idiopathic epilepsy, and 4 had reactive seizures. Median age at seizure onset was 27 weeks (range, 0.4 to 41 weeks). Cluster seizures were reported in 6 cats, and status epilepticus was reported in 2. Age at the onset of seizures, presence of cluster seizures, and seizure semiology (ie, generalized vs focal seizures) were not significantly associated with seizure etiologic classification.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that cats that developed seizures at < 12 months of age were more likely to have structural epilepsy than idiopathic epilepsy or reactive seizures. Therefore, advanced diagnostic imaging is recommended in cats with juvenile-onset seizures if metabolic and toxic causes are excluded.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To identify environmental and other variables associated with a diagnosis of granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) in dogs.


Case-control study.


31 dogs that received a histologic diagnosis of GME (case dogs) from January 2003 to January 2014 and 91 age- and breed-matched dogs.


Data were obtained from each dog's medical records regarding home address, signalment, body weight, body condition score (BCS), vaccination history, and date of diagnosis (case dogs) or visit (control dogs). Home address data were used to determine the human population density in each dog's geographic region. Seasonal distributions of GME diagnoses in the case group were evaluated for differences. Case and control dogs were compared with respect to the remaining variables.


For case dogs, no significant difference was identified among seasons in the distribution of GME diagnoses; however, such diagnoses were more common in the spring than in other seasons. No significant differences were identified between case and control dogs in age, body weight, BCS, human population density, season of diagnosis or visit, or time of last vaccination. Although females appeared more likely than males to have a GME diagnosis, this association was not significant and did not change when BCS, time since last vaccination, or human population density was considered.


None of the evaluated factors, including investigated environmental triggers, were associated with a GME diagnosis in the dogs of this study. Additional research is warranted involving dogs from a broader geographic area.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the percentage of cats with a phenobarbital (PB) concentration between 15 and 45 μg/mL that had a ≥ 50% reduction in the number of seizures and to investigate applicability of the 2011 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification system in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—30 cats with suspected or confirmed epilepsy.

Procedures—Medical records for 2004 to 2013 at 3 veterinary hospitals were searched. Information collected included signalment, duration of observation before treatment, frequency of seizures before PB administration, seizure phenotype, dose of PB, serum PB concentration, number of seizures after PB administration, duration of follow-up monitoring, and survival time. A modified 2011 ILAE classification system was applied to all cats.

Results—Seizure control was achieved in 28 of 30 (93%) cats with a serum PB concentration of 15 to 45 μg/mL. This comprised 10 of 11 cats with structural epilepsy, 14 of 15 cats with unknown epilepsy, and 4 of 4 cats with presumptive unknown epilepsy. Thirteen cats had no additional seizures after initiation of PB treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seizure control was achieved in most cats with a serum PB concentration between 15 and 45 μg/mL, regardless of the cause of the seizures. A modified 2011 ILAE classification was applied to cats with seizures and enabled classification of cats without specific genetic testing and without identified structural or inflammatory disease. This classification system should be incorporated into veterinary neurology nomenclature to standardize communication between veterinarians and improve comparisons among species.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association