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To document presence of endotoxin in portal and systemic blood in a model of canine multiple portosystemic shunts (PSS), and compare values in clinically normal dogs, before and after vena caval banding.


6 control dogs and 10 dogs with dimethylnitrosamine-induced multiple PSS that were subjected to vena caval banding.


Dimethylnitrosamine was administered orally (2 mg/kg of body weight, twice weekly) to the 10 dogs in the diseased group until multiple PSS developed. Surgery was then performed on all 16 dogs (both groups), and shunts were confirmed in the diseased dogs. Blood was collected from the portal vein, hepatic vein, and caudal vena cava for baseline endotoxin determination and aerobic and anaerobic blood culturing. Baseline pressure measurements were taken from the portal venous catheter; then vena caval banding was performed. Blood for endotoxin determinations was taken from all vessels 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 360 minutes after banding; portal pressure measurements were taken at the same time as sample acquisition. Blood for culturing was taken from the portal and hepatic venous catheters at 120, 240, and 360 minutes after banding.


Dogs in the diseased group had significantly greater overall presence of endotoxin in the portal vein (P ≤ 0.0002), hepatic vein (P ≤ 0.0001), and caudal vena cava (P ≤ 0.0004) than did control dogs. With respect to time, endotoxin presence was greater in the diseased group before banding (P ≤ 0.0002), and at 20 (P ≤ 0.0008), 40 (P ≤ 0.002), 60 (P ≤ 0.006), and 120 (P ≤ 0.01) minutes after banding.


Endotoxemia is more frequently present in catheterized dogs with dimethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic disease and multiple PSS, compared with clinically normal dogs. Additionally, portal pressure changes induced by vena caval banding did not affect endotoxemia.

Clinical Relevance

Endotoxemia may exist in dogs with hepatic disease and multiple PSS, and should be kept in mind when formulating treatment (particularly antimicrobial selection) for dogs with suspected endotoxemia. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:83–88)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Effects of vena caval banding on portal venous and vena caval hemodynamics were examined in 6 control dogs and in 10 dogs that had undergone attenuation (banding) of the abdominal part of the caudal vena cava and had dimethylnitrosamine-induced multiple portosystemic shunts (pss). Additionally, indocyanine green (icg) extraction and clearance after infusion to steady state were used to calculate hepatic plasma flow in these dogs. Sixteen dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups: control (n = 6) or diseased(n= 10). Diseased dogs were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg, po, twice weekly) until multiple pss developed, as assessed by results of clinical laboratory tests, ultrasonography, and hepatic scintigraphy. Shunts were confirmed visually at celiotomy and by contrast portography. Venous pressures (caudal vena caval, portal, and hepatic) were recorded before and after vena caval banding for up to 7 days in dogs from both groups. Peritoneal cavity pressures were recorded in all dogs after closure of the body wall. To determine icg extraction and clearance, a bolus injection of icg (0.5 mg/kg, iv) was administered, followed by steady-state infusion of 0.097 mg/min. Extractions and clearances of icg were measured, and from these, hepatic plasma flow rates were determined immediately before and after banding and at 6 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days after banding.

The gradient (caudal vena caval pressure within 1 to 2 mm of Hg of portal pressure) between caudal vena cava and portal venous pressures established at banding was maintained after the first hour in both groups. Caudal vena cava pressures established at banding were maintained throughout the study, with the exception of the first hour in diseased dogs. Extraction ratios were higher in control dogs at all times, except at 48 hours. Clearance was higher in control dogs at all times. Hepatic plasma flow did not differ between groups, except immediately after banding, when flow was greater in diseased dogs, and differences were not found over time in either group. This study indicated that vena caval banding in this model of experimentally induced multiple pss increases and maintains caudal vena cava pressure, relative to portal venous pressure (after the first hour) for 7 days, and that calculated hepatic plasma flow is not persistently improved by vena caval banding.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research