Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for

  • Author or Editor: Gwendolyn L. Carroll x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search

Objective

To evaluate anesthetic effects of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ), alone or in combination with butorphanol, in goats undergoing laparotomy for embryo collection.

Design

Randomized clinical trial with crossover design.

Animals

9 adult female goats.

Procedure

Goats were anesthetized twice: once with TZ (5.5 mg/kg [2.5 mg/lb] of body weight, IV) and once with tiletamine-zolazepam and butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IV). Additional doses of TZ (0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg [0.23 to 0.45 mg/lb], IV) were administered as needed to maintain a surgical anesthetic plane. Time to sternal recumbency was recorded, and quality of induction was scored. Arterial pressures, heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature were recorded every 5 minutes; arterial blood samples were collected every 30 minutes. Oxygen was insufflated if estimated saturation of hemoglobin in peripheral arterial blood with oxygen was < 90%; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was performed if goats became apneic. Muscle relaxation, quality of anesthesia, and eye signs were scored every 15 minutes during anesthesia. Anesthesia time was recorded, and quality of recovery and degree of postoperative analgesia were scored. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured before induction, immediately after extubation, and 2 hours after extubation.

Results

Induction was rapid and smooth. Five goats regurgitated, 3 required supplemental oxygen, and 1 required intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, but none of the goats became hypotensive. Muscle relaxation and quality of anesthesia were adequate. Goats recovered from anesthesia without complications. We did not detect any significant differences between anesthetic regimens for any of the variables measured, except bicarbonate concentration and base excess.

Clinical Implications

TZ at a dose of 5.5 mg/kg was satisfactory for anesthetic induction in goats; additional doses can be given to extend anesthesia time, but addition of butorphanol at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg to this regimen does not seem to provide any measurable benefit. An oxygen source and a means of assisting ventilation should be available. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;211:593–597)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of preemptive administration of meloxicam or butorphanol in cats undergoing onychectomy or onychectomy and neutering.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—64 female and 74 male cats that were 4 to 192 months old and weighed 1.09 to 7.05 kg (2.4 to 15.5 lb).

Procedure—Cats received meloxicam (0.3 mg/kg [0.14 mg/lb], SC) or butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg [0.18 mg/lb], SC) 15 minutes after premedication and prior to anesthesia. A single blinded observer measured physiologic variables, assigned analgesia and lameness scores, and withdrew blood samples for each cat at baseline and throughout the 24 hours after surgery. Rescue analgesia (butorphanol, 0.4 mg/kg, IV or SC) or administration of acepromazine (0.025 to 0.05 mg/kg [0.011 to 0.023 mg/lb], IV) was allowed.

Results—Meloxicam-treated cats were less lame and had lower pain scores. Cortisol concentration was higher at extubation and lower at 1, 5, and 12 hours in the meloxicam-treated cats. Fewer meloxicam-treated cats required rescue analgesia at 3, 5, 12, and 24 hours after extubation. General impression scores were excellent or good in 75% of meloxicam-treated cats and 44% of butorphanol-treated cats. There was no treatment effect on buccal bleeding time; PCV and BUN concentration decreased in both groups, and glucose concentration decreased in meloxicam-treated cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative administration of meloxicam improved analgesia for 24 hours without clinically relevant adverse effects in cats that underwent onychectomy or onychectomy and neutering and provided safe, extended analgesia, compared with butorphanol. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:913–919)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To compare effects of 3 oxytocin-based induction techniques on fetal and neonatal foals.

Design

Prospective randomized controlled trial.

Animals

16 pregnant mares.

Procedure

Parturition was induced in mares by use of 3 treatments: group 1, 75 U of oxytocin, IM; group 2, 15 U of oxytocin, IM, q 15 minutes, for a maximum of 75 U; group 3, 75 U of oxytocin in 1 L of 0.9% NaCI solution, IV (1 U/min), for a maximum of 75 U. Blood gas values and indices of vitality were measured in foals, and variables describing parturition were measured in mares.

Results

Group-3 mares had a shorter interval from administration of oxytocin to rupture of the chorioallantois (OTCA) than group-2 mares. More foals were abnormal when the interval from oxytocin administration to delivery of the foal (OTDE) was ≥ 60 minutes, Arterial blood gas values, measurements of vitality, and plasma cortisol concentrations did not differ among foals in various treatment groups. Increased interval for OTCA and OTDE resulted in higher neonatal Paco2 , and a longer interval for OTCA resulted in lower arterial pH. Time required for birth was shorter in mares with a dilated cervix. More abnormal foals than normal foals were delivered after premature placental separation or dystocia. Abnormal foals took longer to stand and suckle than normal foals. Interval from delivery to suckling was positively correlated with OTCA, OTDE, and Paco2 .

Clinical Implications

Method of oxytocin-induced parturition did not impact neonatal outcome. Interval from induction until parturition, degree of cervical dilatation, and intrapartum complications influenced induction success. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997; 210:799–803

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate disposition of butorphanol after IV and IM administration, effects on physiologic variables, and analgesic efficacy after IM administration in llamas.

Design—Nonrandomized crossover study.

Animals—6 healthy adult male llamas.

Procedure—Butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb] of body weight) was administered IM first and IV 1 month later. Blood samples were collected intermittently for 24 hours after administration. Plasma butorphanol versus time curves were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis. Two months later, butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg) was administered IM, and physiologic variables and analgesia were assessed.

Results—Extrapolated peak plasma concentrations after IV and IM administration were 94.8 ± 53.1 and 34.3 ± 11.6 ng/ml, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state after IV administration was 0.822 ± 0.329 L/kg per minute and systemic clearance was 0.050 ± 0.014 L/kg per minute. Slope of the elimination phase was significantly different, and elimination half-life was significantly shorter after IV (15.9 ± 9.1 minutes) versus IM (66.8 ± 13.5 minutes) administration. Bioavailability was 110 ± 49% after IM administration. Heart rate decreased and rectal temperature increased. Somatic analgesia was increased for various periods. Two llamas became transiently sedated, and 2 became transiently excited after butorphanol administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although IV administration of butorphanol results in a short halflife that may limit its analgesic usefulness, the elimination half-life of butorphanol administered IM is likely to be clinically useful. The relationship among plasma butorphanol concentration, time, and analgesia differed with the somatic analgesia model; clinically useful analgesia may occur at lower plasma concentrations than those reported here. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:1263–1267)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy and safety of using transdermal fentanyl patches (TFP) for analgesia in cats undergoing onychectomy.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—45 client-owned cats weighing ≥ 2.7 kg (5.9 lb) undergoing onychectomy, onychectomy and ovariohysterectomy, or onychectomy and castration.

Procedure—Cats were randomly assigned to be treated with a TFP (25 µg/h) or butorphanol; TFP were applied a minimum of 4 hours before surgery (approx 8 hours prior to extubation). Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, force applied by the forelimbs, and serum fentanyl concentration were measured, and temperament, recovery, degree of sedation, severity of pain, severity of lameness, and appetite were scored before and periodically for up to 40 hours after surgery.

Results—Cats treated with a TFP had better recovery scores at 2 of 4 evaluation times, lower sedation scores at 2 of 8 evaluation times, and lower pain scores at 6 of 8 evaluation times, compared with cats treated with butorphanol. Use of a pressure-sensitive mat to evaluate force applied by the forelimbs did not reveal any differences between groups but did reveal a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values. Mean ± SD serum fentanyl concentrations were 1.56 ± 1.08, 4.85 ± 2.38, 4.87 ± 1.56, and 4.35 ± 2.97 ng/ml approximately 8, 24, 32, and 48 hours, respectively, after TFP placement.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of a TFP (25 µg/h) for postoperative analgesia in cats undergoing onychectomy with or without surgical sterilization is safe and effective. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1013–1020)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate disposition of fentanyl in goats after IV and transdermal administration.

Animals

8 healthy 2-year-old goats weighing 31.8 to 53.6 kg (mean ± SD, 40.4 ± 7.5 kg).

Procedure

Each goat was given 2 treatments consisting of fentanyl administered IV (2.5 μg/kg of body weight) and via a transdermal patch (50 μg/h). There was a 2-month interval between treatments. Blood samples were collected at specified times and analyzed in duplicate to determine plasma fentanyl concentrations. Pharmacokinetic values were calculated, using a computerized modeling program.

Results

Administration of fentanyl was tolerated by all goats. Intravenous administration of fentanyl resulted in a transitory increase in rectal temperature that was not clinically important. Terminal elimination half-life after IV administration was 1.20 ± 0.78 h, volume of distribution at steady state was 1.51 ± 0.39 L/kg, and systemic clearance was 2.09 ± 0.62 L/kg/h. Transdermal administration of fentanyl resulted in variable plasma concentrations, with peak plasma concentrations ranging from 1.12 to 16.69 ng/ml (mean ± SD, 6.99 ± 6.03 ng/ml) and time to peak concentration ranging from 8 to 18 hours (mean ± SD, 13 ± 4.5 hours). After removal of the transdermal patch, mean ± SD terminal elimination half-life was 5.34 ± 5.34 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Intravenous administration of fentanyl (2.5 μg/kg) in goats results in a relatively short half-life that will limit its use for management of pain. Transdermal administration of fentanyl (50 μg/h) in goats results in variable plasma concentrations that may exceed those anticipated on the basis of a theoretical delivery rate, but stable plasma concentrations of fentanyl may not be achieved. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:986–991)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate adequacy of analgesia provided by postoperative administration of butorphanol to cats undergoing onychectomy.

Design

Randomized controlled trial.

Animals

63 cats undergoing elective onychectomy.

Procedure

Cats were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 42) or control group (21). Cats in the treatment group were given butorphanol parenterally immediately and 4 hours after surgery and orally for 2 days after surgery. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded and scores were assigned for temperament, recovery, sedation, analgesia, and lameness for the first 24 hours after surgery. Owners provided scores for appetite, personality, and lameness the first and second days after discharge from the hospital.

Results

Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and temperament and sedation scores were not significantly different between groups at any evaluation time. Recovery scores were significantly better for butorphanol-treated than for control-group cats 10 minutes after extubation. Analgesia scores were significantly better for butorphanol-treated than for control-group cats between 5 and 24 hours after surgery. Fewer butorphanol-treated than control-group cats were lame at the time of discharge from the hospital. The first day after discharge, owners reported that percentages of butorphanol-treated cats that ate normally, acted normally, and had only mild or no lameness were significantly higher than percentages of control-group cats that did. Significant differences between groups were not detected the second day after discharge.

Clinical Implications

Results suggest that for cats undergoing onychectomy, administration of butorphanol the day of surgery and the first full day after surgery provides effective analgesia and improves recovery, appetite, and gait. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:246-250)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association