Case Description—A 7-year-old 23-kg (50.6-lb) spayed female Border Collie with a history of heartworm disease was evaluated for respiratory distress.
Clinical Findings—Computed tomography of the thorax revealed possible pulmonary bullae or blebs, and on the basis of these findings, a tentative diagnosis of bullous emphysema was made.
Treatment and Outcome—Exploratory median sternotomy revealed gross pathological lesions in the right caudal lung lobe; the most peripheral portion appeared discolored (pale pink), and a clear line of demarcation was observed. Upon excision of the affected lung lobe, a worm segment was noticed both on the remaining stump of the lung lobe in the dog and in the removed lobe. At this time, the dog had an anaphylactoid reaction. The reaction was successfully treated with fluid therapy, antihistamines, and corticosteroids. Lung lobectomy of the right caudal lobe resulted in clinical resolution of the bilateral pneumothorax. However, during the postoperative period, the dog developed a hemothorax and was returned to surgery. As no obvious cause for the hemothorax was seen at the second surgery, the dog was treated for a potential coagulopathy with fresh frozen plasma, which provided clinical resolution of the hemothorax. Parasitological examination of the worm segment confirmed a Dirofilaria immitis infection. The dog was discharged 5 days after surgery and treated with doxycycline for 30 days and monthly administration of heartworm preventative was prescribed.
Clinical Relevance—Heartworm infection should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax. Anaphylactoid reactions associated with accidental dissection of adult heartworms should be managed with treatment aimed at cardiovascular stabilization.
Objective—To compare 5 radiographic views for the detection of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs with signs of elbow joint pain.
Animals—53 dogs (100 elbow joints) with forelimb lameness and signs of elbow joint pain.
Procedures—Mediolateral (ML), flexed ML, craniocaudal (CC), craniolateral-caudomedial oblique (Cr15L-CdMO), and distomedial-proximolateral oblique (Di35M-PrLO) radiographic views of the 100 elbow joints were obtained. Four examiners graded radiographs with regard to elbow joint OCD. Joints were assessed by use of arthroscopy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, kappa measure of agreement, and Fisher exact tests for association between median diagnostic value and actual status were computed.
Results—47 joints had an abnormal medial aspect of the humeral condyle (MAHC), and among them, 11 had OCD. The presence of fractures of the medial coronoid process was significantly and positively correlated with the presence of abnormalities of the MAHC (r = 0.40), but was negatively correlated with the presence of OCD (r = −0.32). At 95% specificity, median sensitivities to detect OCD were 57% for Cr15L-CdMO, 56% for CC, 10% for flexed ML, 7% for ML, and 4% for Di35M-PrLO views. The areas under the ROC curves were significantly larger for the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views than for the ML, flexed ML, and Di35M-PrLO views for the detection of OCD. Only the Cr15L-CdMO and CC views allowed accurate detection of OCD.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with signs of elbow joint pain, the Cr15L-CdMO view is excellent and the CC view was good for detection of OCD.
Objective—To study the hemodynamic effects of
marbofloxacin (MBF) in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.
Animals—6 healthy 8-month-old Beagles.
Procedure—Anesthesia was induced with sodium
thiopental and maintained with isoflurane.
Cardiovascular variables were monitored throughout
anesthesia. Marbofloxacin was administered by
an IV bolus at 2 mg/kg, followed 10 minutes later by
an infusion at a rate of 40 mg/kg/h for 30 minutes
(total dose, 20 mg/kg). Plasma MBF concentrations
were measured by high-performance liquid
Results—The mean peak concentration during MBF
infusion was 34.2 ± 6.4 µg/mL. The IV administration
of the MBF bolus did not alter any cardiovascular variable
in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Significant
changes were found during infusion when a cumulative
dose of 12 mg/kg had been given. The maximal
decreases observed at the end of the infusion were
16% in heart rate, 26% in systolic left ventricular pressure,
33% in systolic aortic pressure, 38% in diastolic
aortic pressure, 29% in cardiac output, and 12% in
QT interval. All dogs recovered rapidly from anesthesia
at the end of the experiment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MBF may
safely be used at 2 mg/kg IV in isoflurane-anesthetized
dogs, and significant adverse cardiovascular effects
are found only when 6 to 8 times the recommended
dose is given. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:2090–2094)
Objective—To assess the effects of moderate exercise
on plasma creatine kinase (CK) pharmacokinetics
and to estimate exercise-induced muscle damage in
Animals—6 untrained adult Beagles.
Procedure—The study was divided into 3 phases. In
phase 1, dogs ran for 1 hour at a speed of 9 km/h, and
samples were used to determine the area under the
plasma CK activity versus time curve (AUC) induced
by exercise. In phases 2 and 3, pharmacokinetics of
CK were calculated in dogs during exercise and at
rest, respectively. Values for AUC and plasma clearance
(Cl) were used to estimate muscle damage.
Results—At rest, values for Cl, steady-state volume
of distribution (Vdss), and mean retention time (MRT)
were 0.32 ± 0.02 ml/kg of body weight/min, 57 ± 17.3
ml/kg, and 3.0 ± 0.57 h, respectively. During exercise,
Cl decreased significantly (0.26 ± 0.03 ml/kg/min),
MRT increased significantly, (4.4 ± 0.97 h), and Vdss
remained unchanged. Peak of plasma CK activity (151
± 58.8 U/L) was observed 3 hours after completion of
exercise. Estimated equivalent amount of muscle corresponding
to the quantity of CK released was 41 ±
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—These results
revealed that exercise had a minor effect on CK disposition
and that the equivalent amount of muscle
damaged by moderate exercise was negligible. This
study illustrates the relevance for use of the minimally
invasive and quantitative pharmacokinetic approach
when estimating muscle damage. (Am J Vet Res
Objectives—To investigate and validate noninvasive
methods for the quantitative evaluation of postinjection
Animals—5 adult sheep.
Procedures—Muscle lesions were induced twice in
the lumbar region of the longissimus dorsi muscles (2
sides) by IM administration of a 20% formulation of
long-acting oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg of body
weight). Clinical signs and local cutaneous temperature
above the injection site were recorded. Muscle
lesions were quantitatively evaluated by ultrasonography
and by use of pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma
creatine kinase activity, and both were compared with
a comprehensive planimetric computer-assisted
analysis of the injection sites after euthanasia.
Results—Transient cutaneous hypothermia (temperature
change, –3.9 ± 0.62 C) and subsequent persistent
hyperthermia (3.1 ± 1.35 C) were observed after the
administrations. Despite coefficient of variation < 10%
for precision of ultrasonographic measurement of normal
muscle, measurements of the lesions, with coefficient
of variation > 60% for precision, were systematically
underestimated. Quantitative evaluation of muscle
damage by use of pharmacokinetic analysis of creatine
kinase (12.1 ± 4.96 g) was in agreement with results of
macroscopic planimetric evaluation (10.8 ± 3.64 g).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography
cannot be used for quantitative assessment
of postinjection muscle damage. Pharmacokinetic
analysis of creatine kinase provides an accurate
quantitative evaluation of macroscopic muscle
damage after IM administration of drugs. (Am J Vet
Objective—To determine the electrical impulse duration thresholds (chronaxy) for maximal motor contraction of various muscles without stimulation of pain fibers in dogs.
Animals—10 healthy adult Beagles.
Procedures—The dogs were used to assess the minimal intensity (rheobase) required to elicit motor contraction of 11 muscles (5 in the forelimb [supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus, lateral head of the triceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis], 5 in the hind limb [gluteus medius, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, vastus lateralis, and tibialis cranialis], and the erector spinae). The rheobase was used to determine the chronaxy for each of the 11 muscles in the 10 dogs; chronaxy values were compared with those reported for the corresponding muscles in humans.
Results—Compared with values in humans, chronaxy values for stimulation of AA motor fibers in the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles and muscles of the more distal portions of limbs were lower in dogs. For the other muscles evaluated, chronaxy values did not differ between dogs and humans.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Application of the dog-specific chronaxy values when performing electrical stimulation for strengthening muscles or providing pain relief is likely to minimize the pain perceived during treatment in dogs.
Case Description—A 6-year-old Siberian Husky–mix dog was examined for episodes of collapse.
Clinical Findings—Physical examination, echocardiography, abdominal ultrasonography, ECG, and thoracic computed tomography with contrast were performed and revealed a 2.5 × 2.3 × 2.0-cm mass over the pulmonic valve leaflets, resulting in moderate pulmonic stenosis. Other abnormal findings included systemic hypertension, right bundle branch block, proteinuria, and a urinary bladder mass.
Treatment and Outcome—Pulmonary arteriotomy was performed under inflow occlusion, and the mass was resected with transesophageal echocardiographic guidance and direct visualization. Results of histologic examination of the mass revealed a vascular hamartoma. Sequential follow-up examinations and telephone contacts (at 0.5, 5, and 15 months after surgery) revealed that the patient had been free from episodes of collapse since surgery. No regrowth of the mass was noted on follow-up echocardiograms, and the pulmonic stenosis had resolved, although mild to moderate pulmonary insufficiency later developed. The bladder mass was excised 15 months after the first surgery when hematuria developed, and results of histologic examination of this mass revealed a vascular hamartoma. The dog was eventually euthanized 31 months after the initial surgery for reasons that could not be directly linked to any recurrence of the pulmonary artery mass.
Clinical Relevance—Hamartomas are benign tumors that can be located in various tissues, including large arteries. Computed tomography was helpful in predicting the resectability of the intracardiac mass in this dog. Treatment with arteriotomy under inflow occlusion and mild hypothermia resulted in a favorable outcome.
To determine the prevalence of splenic malignancy in cats undergoing splenectomy and to investigate possible factors associated with post-operative outcome.
62 client-owned cats that underwent splenectomy.
Medical records of 4 UK-based referral hospitals were searched and data reviewed retrospectively over 17 years. Factors associated with outcomes post-splenectomy were analyzed.
50 out of 62 cats (81%) were diagnosed with splenic neoplasia. Mast cell tumor ([MCT], 42%), hemangiosarcoma ([HSA], 40%), lymphoma and histiocytic sarcoma (6% each) were the most common tumor types. Fifteen cats (24%) presented with spontaneous hemoabdomen and were all diagnosed with splenic neoplasia. The diagnostic accuracy of cytology to detect splenic malignant lesions was 73% (100% for MCTs and 54% for mesenchymal tumors). Median survival time for cats with nonneoplastic splenic lesions was 715 days (IQR, 18 to 1,368) and 136 days for cats with splenic neoplasia (IQR, 35 to 348); median survival time was longer for cats with splenic MCT when compared to cats with HSA (348 vs 94 days; P < .001). Presence of metastatic disease and anemia (PCV < 24%) at diagnosis were associated with a poorer survival when considering all cats. Presence of anemia, a splenic mass on imaging or spontaneous hemoabdomen were associated with a diagnosis of HSA (P < .001).
Benign splenic lesions were uncommon in this cohort of cats. Spontaneous hemoabdomen should prompt the clinician to suspect neoplasia in cats with splenic disease. Anemia and evidence of metastasis at diagnosis were poor prognostic factors regardless of the final diagnosis.