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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare temporospatial variables (TSVs) and kinetic variables (KVs) for fore-limbs and hind limbs of small and large dogs of various breeds during walking and to determine associations among body weight (BW), TSVs, and KVs in these groups.

Animals—12 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness.

Procedures—Dogs (grouped according to BW as small [< 10 kg; n = 6] or large [> 25 kg; 6]) were walked in a straight line at their preferred velocity on a wooden platform with an embedded pressure-sensing walkway. Five valid trials were analyzed for each dog; mean TSVs and KVs were determined for each group. The TSVs and KVs for forelimbs and hind limbs were compared between groups, and correlations among BW, TSVs, and KVs were determined.

Results—Small dogs had significantly smaller TSVs and KVs than did large dogs. Temporal variables of small dogs and absolute vertical force variables of small and large dogs increased as BW increased. However, normalized peak vertical force and weight distribution values among the 4 limbs were similar between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Substantial similarities and differences were detected in gait characteristics between small and large dogs. Results indicated TSVs and KVs can be used for comparison of the walking gait between dogs or for comparison of variables between limbs in an individual dog. Use of the pressure-sensing walkway is a simple method for acquisition of TSVs and KVs for large and small dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypotheses that kinematic data of the sagittal motion of canine hind limbs during walking obtained with a 2-dimensional (2-D) system correlate well with those obtained with a 3-dimensional (3-D) system and that the data obtained with the 2-D system are repeatable.

Animals—6 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness.

Procedures—Hind limb motions of 6 walking dogs were recorded via 2-D video and 3-D optoelectric systems simultaneously. Five valid trials were digitized, and 5 data sets (2-D 60 Hz, 3-D 180 Hz, 3-D sagittal 180 Hz, 3-D 60 Hz, and 3-D sagittal 60 Hz) of a complete gait cycle were created for each dog. In sagittal data sets, 3-D data were reduced to exclude coordinates for mediolateral orientation. Temporospatial parameters; angles of hip, stifle, and tarsal joints; and coefficients of variation of angular measurements of each dog were calculated for each data set. Accuracy of the 2-D analysis was determined by calculating mean absolute differences and estimating agreement between the 2-D and 3-D 180-Hz data sets.

Results—Values of joint angles and angular excursions measured with the 2-D system were repeatable and agreed with respective values obtained with the 3-D system. Reduction of the sampling rate had a greater impact on values of kinematic variables obtained with the 3-D system than did elimination of data on mediolateral orientation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Kinematic analysis using a 2-D video system provided accurate and repeatable data of the sagittal angular motion of canine hind limbs during walking.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To establish reference values for a panel of serum markers of bone turnover in dogs of various ages.

Animals

Dogs in 4 age groups (0 to 1 year; 1 to 2 years; 3 to 7 years; > 8 years).

Procedure

Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type-I procollagen (PINP), both markers of type-I collagen synthesis (hence, bone formation), were measured by use of commercial human radioimmunoassay kits. Serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I collagen (ICTP), a marker for type-I collagen breakdown (hence, bone resorption), also were measured by use of a commercial human radioimmunoassay kit. Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activities were measured by use of techniques developed specifically for dogs.

Results

As expected, the highest values for all of the markers were found in young dogs (< 12 months old). Concentrations of OC and ICTP decreased with age, and were lowest in dogs > 8 years old. Total ALP and bone-specific ALP activities initially decreased with age, then increased in dogs > 8 years old.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

Serum markers of bone turnover may be useful diagnostic and prognostic tools for management of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:250–254)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of a bovine albumin–derivatized glutaraldehyde (BA-DG) biopolymer sealant on leakage pressures of intestinal anastomoses in jejunal tissue collected from fresh canine cadavers and to evaluate changes in circumference and cross-sectional area of the anastomotic site resulting from sealant application.

SAMPLE 24 jejunal anastomoses from 4 fresh canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES Jejunal tissue specimens were collected, and adjacent segment anastomoses were created within 12 hours after euthanasia of each dog. The tissue constructs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups in which sealant was or was not applied. The outer circumference of all anastomoses in the sealant group was measured before and after application of the sealant; the cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site was then calculated at each time point. Tissue constructs were pressure tested, and leakage pressure and site were recorded. All testing was completed within 24 hours after tissue collection.

RESULTS Compared with preapplication findings, there were no significant changes in outer circumference or cross-sectional area at the anastomotic site after sealant application. Leakage pressures in the sealant group were significantly higher than those in the no-sealant group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of surgical sealant on fresh canine cadaver jejunal anastomoses resulted in significantly higher leakage pressure at the anastomotic site; no immediate tissue deformation of the outer circumference or cross-sectional area occurred after sealant application. Future in vivo investigations are warranted to evaluate the effects of this sealant and potential benefits for clinical patients undergoing enterectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To use the small data approach of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to evaluate the transferability of reference intervals (RIs) for kinetic variables obtained with instrumented gait analysis (IGA) in dogs from an RI-originator laboratory to another laboratory that used the same data acquisition and analytic techniques for IGA in walking dogs.

ANIMALS

27 adult client-owned dogs without evidence of lameness.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were individually walked at their preferred velocity on a pressure-sensing walkway for IGA at the Colorado State University Animal Gait Laboratory (CSU-AGL), and 6 valid trials were analyzed for each dog. The small data approach of the CLSI was then used to evaluate transferability of RIs previously established at the Purdue University Animal Gait Laboratory (PU-AGL). A linear model was used to establish weight-dependent RIs for peak vertical force (PVF).

RESULTS

Results indicated that RIs of dynamic weight distribution (DWD), DWD symmetry index, DWD coefficient of variation, PVF symmetry index, and PVF coefficient of variation were transferable from PU-AGL to CSU-AGL, whereas the weight-dependent RIs for PVF were not. Regression slopes for PVF versus body weight were greater for all limbs in dogs tested at the CSU-AGL, compared with historic results for dogs tested at the PU-AGL.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of the small data approach method of the CLSI to validate transference of RIs for IGA kinetic variables in walking dogs was simple and efficient to perform and may help facilitate clinical and research collaborations on gait analysis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypotheses that the densities of macrophages in the synovial membranes and capsules of stifle joints in dogs with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments are greater than those of normal joints and that those densities in affected joints are positively correlated with the chronicity and severity of the disease.

Animals—17 dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament and 5 healthy control dogs.

Procedure—All dogs underwent orthopedic and radiographic evaluations. In affected dogs, duration of clinical signs was used as an indicator of disease chronicity and the severity of osteoarthritis in the stifle joint was determined radiographically. Joint capsule specimens were evaluated histologically; macrophages, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were identified by use of immunocytochemical techniques.

Results—Compared with unaffected joints, macrophage density was increased in all affected joints. Duration of disease was significantly associated with radiographic severity of osteoarthritis and synovial macrophage density. Synovial macrophage density was significantly associated with severity of osteoarthritis and with the presence of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that synovial macrophages may be involved in the development of pathologic changes (including osteophyte formation) in the stifle joints of dogs with osteoarthritis secondary to rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Determination of the importance of synovial macrophages in the development of changes in osteoarthritic joints may result in new treatment strategies that involve elimination of the deleterious effects of those cells. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:493–499)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research