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Summary

Recovery of cows (n = 61) with mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria and treated systemically with an antibiotic (gentamicin) to which the bacteria were susceptible in vitro, was compared with recovery of cows (n = 13) with similar infections treated with a systemically administered antibiotic (erythromycin) to which the bacteria were resistant in vitro or with recovery of cows (n = 12) not given an antibiotic systemically. In the first part of the study, cows were selected for treatment groups by use of a diagnostic scheme designed to predict whether the mastitis was caused by gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria. In the second part of the study, all cows were treated without systemic administration of an antibiotic.

Significant difference was not observed in the outcome of the disease between cows given gentamicin and cows of the other 2 treatment groups at 24 hours or at 4 weeks after treatment. At 24 hours after initial treatment, 71.9% of cows treated with gentamicin, 92.3% of those treated with erythromycin, and 45.5% not treated systemically had improved appetite. At 4 weeks after initial treatment, of the cows treated with gentamicin, 11.5% died; in 32.8%, lactation ceased in the affected mammary gland; in 21.3%, lactation was decreased in the affected gland; and 34.4% returned to normal lactation and health. Of cows treated with erythromycin, none died; in 23%, lactation ceased in the affected mammary gland; in 23%, lactation decreased in the affected gland; and 54% returned to normal lactation and health. Of cows not treated systemically, 8% died; in 50%, lactation ceased in the affected mammary gland; in 8%, lactation decreased in the affected gland; and 33% returned to normal lactation and health. Differences between cows treated with gentamicin and the other 2 groups of cows were not statistically significant.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The accuracy of a scheme for predicting the gram-staining reaction of organisms causing bovine mastitis in cows with systemic signs of disease (anorexia) was evaluated over 1 year. Criteria for making the predictions included: season of year, stage of lactation, appearance of milk, detection and duration of teat injuries, and milk odor. It was possible to determine the cause by microbiologic culture of specimens from 136 of the 147 cows of the study. Of 78 infections caused by gram-negative (mostly coliform) organisms, 62 (79%) were predicted accurately to be caused by gram-negative organisms. Of 57 infections caused by gram-positive organisms, 45 (79%) were predicted correctly to be caused by gram-positive organisms. Correctly predicted as gram-positive organisms causing infection were: Actinomyces pyogenes in 20 of 21 (95%) cows; Staphylococcus sp in 14 of 22 (64%) cows; Streptococcus sp in 10 of 13 (77%) cows and Bacillus sp in 1 cow. Overall accuracy, in those instances when bacteria were isolated (136 cows), was 78%.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objectives

To test suitability of radiographic evaluation of lung lesions as a substitute for lung lesion scores derived by examination at necropsy in challenge-exposure models of bovine pneumonia.

Animals

10 calves selected by body weight from 20 multiple-source male Holstein calves approximately 1 to 2 months old enrolled in a Pasteurella multocida challenge-exposure study.

Procedure

Calves were paired on the basis of weight and randomly assigned within pairs to vaccine or control (saline solution) group. By use of deep tracheal cannulation, calves were challenge exposed with a culture of virulent P multocida, observed for 10 days, euthanatized, and necropsied, and the lungs were scored for pneumonic lesions. Radiographic views of the lung fields of the calves were taken before challenge exposure and before necropsy and were evaluated for alveolar disease by a veterinary radiologist. Lung lesion scores were compared with radiographic evaluations.

Results

There was a strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) between results of the evaluation of postchallenge-exposure radiographs and necropsy results. There also was also strong and significant correlation (R2 = 0.90, P < 0.001) between evaluation of the prechallenge-exposure radiographs and necropsy results.

Conclusions

Radiographic evaluation of lung lesions correlates well with lung lesions found at necropsy. The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting the results of challenge-exposure studies of bovine respiratory tract disease in which small numbers of calves are studied. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59: 1108-1112)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Intestinal tissues from swine affected with proliferative enteritis were ground, filtered through a 0.65-μm pore membrane filter, diluted, and injected into 7-day-old embryonated hens’ eggs via the yolk sac. At 2, 4, and 7 days later, yolk sac swab specimens taken from live embryos were cultured for Campylobacter species. Campylobacter hyointestinalis was recovered from eggs injected with tissues of swine with acute hemorrhagic proliferative enteritis at dilutions up to 10−4. Campylobacter mucosalis was recovered from eggs injected with tissues of swine with chronic proliferative enteritis at dilutions up to 10−6. Campylobacter coli was recovered from several specimens without lesions of proliferative enteritis and also from some specimens with lesions of proliferative enteritis. Two previously undescribed hemolytic Campylobacter species designed as hemolytic number 1 and hemolytic number 2 were recovered from normal and experimentally inoculated swine tissues. Few contaminating organisms grow in eggs and these were usually recovered at dilutions of 10−2 or less. Recovery of Campylobacter species by use of these techniques was seldom successful in tissues stored at −70 C for more than 6 months.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Embryonating eggs were inoculated with filtered porcine ileal mucosa containing intracellular curved rods (icr) and incubated for 4 to 6 days. Three of 12 pigs given the eggs per os developed microscopic lesions of proliferative enteritis (pe). Nonchallenge-exposed control pigs did not develop lesions of pe. Four of six positive control pigs given ileal mucosa from pigs with pe also developed microscopic lesions of pe. All of the PE lesions were found in pigs necropsied 10 to 29 days after challenge exposure. None of the swine in the study had clinical signs or gross lesions of pe.

Campylobacter spp were isolated from pigs with and without exposure to the ileal mucosa from pigs with pe. There was no relationship between Campylobacter spp isolation and development of lesions.

Deoxyribonucleic acids extracted from embryonating chicken eggs injected with the equivalent of 0.5 mg of mucosal lesions and incubated for 4 days hybridized to a dna probe specific for the icr, whereas dna extracted from 1.5 mg of mucosal homogenates of the same proliferative tissue did not hybridize with the same probe. Results of these experiments indicated that icr injected into eggs remained infective for pigs and suggest replication of icr in the first-passage eggs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

In an abattoir-based case-control study, histologic, and macroscopic examination of porcine intestines at slaughter and 2 molecular assays were compared for use as diagnostic tests of proliferative enteritis (pe). Fecal samples and intestinal specimens were collected from pigs with grossly thick ileum and from clinically normal pigs at slaughter. Tissue specimens were fixed in neutral buffered 10% formalin, and sectioned. Sections stained with H&E were examined for proliferative lesions by a pathologist unaware of the group to which the pig had been assigned on the basis of results of gross examination. Adjacent tissue sections, stained with Warthin-Starry (silver) stain, were examined for presence of the intracellular bacterium of pe, ileal symbiont (is)-intracellularis, in the enterocytes of the intestinal crypts by the senior author, who was unaware either of the group to which the pig had been assigned or diagnosis by the pathologist. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the fecal samples and assayed by dot-blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for presence of is-intracellularis dna, without knowledge of results of the other examinations. The pcr assay for is-intracellularis was a specific and sensitive diagnostic test for pe, and dot-blot hybridization was sensitive, but was less specific. Macroscopic examination of intestines at slaughter was a sensitive, but not specific, test.

Association between is-intracellularis and proliferative lesions was statistically examined in the same study. There was a highly significant (P = 0.0078) association between presence of naturally acquired proliferative lesions and intracellular infection induced by is-intracellularis. The odds ratio of ≥ 14 and estimated attributable fraction of ≥ 92% indicate that is-intracellularis may be a necessary cause of pe.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A method of extracting bacterial dna from swine feces was developed and used in a molecular assay for the presence of ileal symbiont (is) intracellularis, formerly known as the Campylobacter-like organism associated with swine with proliferative enteritis. Hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled, is intracellularis-specific probe detected the presence of is intracellularis at a concentration of 107 organisms/g of feces. This method was sufficient to detect is intracellularis in the feces of swine with experimentally induced and naturally acquired infection. Results of the hybridization were in agreement with those from histologic postmortem examination.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research