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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

The thiamylal sparing effect of midazolam was studied in 30 healthy Beagle and mixed-breed dogs. Using a replicated Latin square design, all dogs were given placebo (saline solution) and 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg of midazolam/ kg of body weight prior to iv administration of thiamylal sodium. The 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg dosages significantly decreased the amount of thiamylal required to obtund swallowing reflex and easily achieve endotracheal intubation. Midazolam at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg reduced thiamylal requirement by 16.4% and 18.9%, respectively, whereas the 0.05 mg/kg dosage decreased thiamylal requirement by only 6.8%. The 0.2 mg/kg dosage did not further decrease thiamylal requirement beyond that achieved with the 0.1 mg/kg dosage of midazolam. This study demonstrates that the preanesthetic iv administration of midazolam reduces the thiamylal dose necessary to accomplish intubation. The optimal preanesthetic dosage (lowest dosage with significant effect) was 0.1 mg/kg.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Pharmacokinetic variables of etomidate were determined after iv administration of etomidate (3.0 mg/kg of body weight). Blood samples were collected for 6 hours. Disposition of this carboxylated imidazole best conformed to a 2- (n = 2) and a 3- compartment (n = 4) open pharmacokinetic model. The pharmacokinetic values were calculated for the overall best-fitted model, characterized as a mixed 2- and 3-compartmental model. The first and most rapid distribution half-life was 0.05 hour and a second distribution half-life was 0.35 hour. Elimination half-life was 2.89 hours, apparent volume of distribution was 11.87 ± 4.64 L/kg, apparent volume of distribution at steady state was 4.88 ± 2.25 L/kg, apparent volume of the central compartment was 1.17 ± 0.70 L/kg, and total clearance was 2.47 ± 0.78 L/kg/h.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To assess duration of actions of butorphanol, medetomidine, and a butorphanol-medetomidine combination in dogs given subanesthetic doses of isoflurane (ISO).

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedure—Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values for ISO were determined. for each dog. Subsequently, 4 treatments were administered to each dog (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg of body weight], medetomidine [5.0 mg/kg], and a combination of butorphanol [0.2 mg/kg] and medetomidine [5.0 mg/kg]). All treatments were administered IM to dogs concurrent with isoflurane; treatment order was determined, using a randomized crossover design. Treatments were given at 7-day intervals. After mask induction with ISO and instrumentation with a rectal temperature probe, endtidal CO2 and anesthetic gas concentrations were analyzed. End-tidal ISO concentration was reduced to 90% MAC for each dog. A tail clamp was applied 15 minutes later. After a positive response, 1 of the treatments was administered. Response to application of the tail clamp was assessed at 15-minute intervals until a positive response again was detected.

Results—Duration of nonresponse after administration of saline solution, butorphanol, medetomidine, and butorphanol-medetomidine (mean ± SD) was 0.0 ± 0.0, 1.5 ± 1.5, 2.63 ± 0.49, and 5.58 ± 2.28 hours, respectively. Medetomidine effects were evident significantly longer than those for saline solution, whereas effects for butorphanol-medetomidine were evident significantly longer than for each agent administered alone.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—During ISOinduced anesthesia, administration of medetomidine, but not butorphanol, provides longer and more consistent analgesia than does saline solution, and the combination of butorphanol-medetomidine appears superior to the use of medetomidine or butorphanol alone. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:42–47)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the relationship between bispectral index (BIS) and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of isoflurane after IM injection of medetomidine or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution in anesthetized dogs.

Animals—6 dogs.

Procedure—Each dog was anesthetized 3 times with isoflurane. First, the MAC of isoflurane for each dog was determined by use of the tail clamp method. Second, anesthetized dogs were randomly assigned to receive an IM injection of medetomidine (8 µg · kg–1) or an equal volume of isotonic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution 30 minutes prior to beginning BIS measurements. Last, anesthetized dogs received the remaining treatment (medetomidine or isotonic saline solution). Dogs were anesthetized at each of 4 MAC multiples of isoflurane. Ventilation was controlled and atracurium (0.2 mg/kg followed by 6 µg/kg/min as a continuous infusion, IV) administered. After a 20-minute equilibration period at each MAC multiple of isoflurane, BIS data were collected for 5 minutes and median values of BIS calculated.

Results—BIS significantly decreased with increasing MAC multiples of isoflurane over the range of 0.8 to 2.0 MAC. Mean (± SD) MAC of isoflurane was 1.3 ± 0.2%. During isoflurane-saline anesthesia, mean BIS measurements at 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 MAC were 65 ± 8, 60 ± 7, 52 ± 3, and 31 ± 28, respectively. During isoflurane-medetomidine anesthesia, mean BIS measurements at 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 MAC were 77 ± 4, 53 ± 7, 31 ± 24, and 9 ± 20, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—BIS monitoring in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane has a predictive value in regard to degree of CNS depression. During isoflurane anesthesia, our results support a MAC-reducing effect of medetomidine. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:316–320)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate the ability of flumazenil (FLU), butorphanol (BUT), and naloxone (NAL) to reverse the anesthetic effects of oxymorphone-diazepam in dogs.

Animals

6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

Dogs were randomly assigned to each of 6 reversal treatment groups. In each experiment, oxymorphone (0.22 mg/kg of body weight, IV) and diazepam (0.22 mg/kg, IV) were given sequentially 15 minutes after glycopyrroiate (0.01 mg/kg, IV) administration. Physiologic saline solution (SAL; 1 ml), FLU (0.01 mg/kg), BUT (0.44 mg/kg), or NAL (0.06 mg/kg) alone, or FLU-BUT or FLU-NAL (same dosages) was given IV as a reversal treatment 15 minutes after oxymorphone-diazepam administration. An individual unaware of the treatment protocol recorded time to extubation, sternal recumbency, and walking.

Results

Time to extubation was significantly (P < 0.05) less with BUT, NAL, FLU-BUT, or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment. Time to sternal recumbency was less with BUT, NAL, FLU-BUT, or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment. Time to walking was less with FLU-BUT or FLU-NAL treatment, compared with that for SAL treatment.

Clinical Implications

Flumazenil, in combination with BUT or NAL, can be used to reverse the anesthetic effects of oxymorphone-diazepam in dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:776–779)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to onychectomy were examined in 27 cats receiving different anesthetic regimens. Each cat was anesthetized with a dissociative-tranquilizer combination, and onychectomy was performed on 1 forefoot. One week later, each cat was anesthetized with the same dissociative-tranquilizer combination plus either butorphanol or oxymorphone, and onychectomy was performed on the other forefoot. Four treatment groups were studied: tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-1 cats, ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-butorphanol combinations were administered to group-2 cats, tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-3 cats, and ketamine-acepromazine and ketamine-acepromazine-oxymorphone combinations were administered to group-4 cats. All drug combinations were administered im. Central venous blood samples were drawn for catecholamine analysis after injection of drug(s), after onychectomy, and 1, 2, and 4 hours after injection. Tiletamine-zolazepam alone or tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol prevented epinephrine release for 2 hours after injection of drug(s). Norepinephrine concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05) from baseline after onychectomy for tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol and at 4 hours for tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-butorphanol. After onychectomy, there was no difference in epinephrine values between tiletamine-zolazepam and tiletamine-zolazepam-oxymorphone. Ketamine-acepromazine prevented increases in norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations for up to 2 hours after surgery. Addition of butorphanol to ketamine-acepromazine decreased norepinephrine values immediately after onychectomy. Addition of oxymorphone to ketamine-acepromazine resulted in lower epinephrine values 4 hours after surgery.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Reversal of hemodynamic alterations induced by midazolam maleate (1.0 mg/kg of body weight), xylazine hydrochloride (0.44 mg/kg), and butorphanol tartrate (0.1 mg/kg) with yohimbine (0.1 mg/kg) and flumazenil (0.25 mg/kg) was evaluated in 5 dogs. The dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane for instrumentation. With return to consciousness, baseline values were recorded, and the midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol mixture with glycopyrrolate was administered IV. Hemodynamic data were recorded for 60 minutes, and then a reversal mixture of yohimbine and flumazenil was administered IV. All variables were measured 1 minute from beginning of the reversal injection. Mean arterial pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly (P < 0.05) above baseline at 60 minutes. Cardiac index and central venous pressure significantly decreased below baseline at 60 minutes. After reversal, mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure significantly decreased from baseline, whereas cardiac index, pulmonary arterial pressure, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above baseline. Heart rate, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index increased significantly above the 60-minute value after reversal. Mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance decreased significantly (P < 0.05) below the 60-minute value after reversal. The hemodynamic alterations accompanying midazolam/xylazine/butorphanol sedation-anesthesia may be rapidly reversed with a combination of yohimbine and flumazenil.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Six healthy Holstein calves were anesthetized with isoflurane in O2 and instrumented for hemodynamic studies. A saphenous artery was catheterized for measurement of blood pressure and withdrawal of blood for determination of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 ), oxygen (PaO2 ), and arterial pH (pHa). Respiration was controlled throughout the study. The ecg and eeg were monitored continuously. A thermodilution catheter was passed via the right jugular vein into the pulmonary artery for determination of cardiac output and measurement of central venous pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Baseline values (time 0) were recorded following recovery from isoflurane. Tiletamine-zolazepam (4 mg/kg)-xylazine (0.1 mg/kg) were administered iv immediately after recording baseline values. Values were again recorded at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes after injection. Changes in left ventricular stroke work index, Paco2 , and pHa were insignificant. Arterial blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance increased above baseline at 5 minutes and then gradually decreased below baseline at 40 minutes, demonstrating a biphasic response. Values for pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure, central venous pressure, and Pao2 were increased above baseline from 5 to 60 minutes. Stroke volume, stroke index, and right ventricular stroke work index were increased from 20 or 30 minutes to 60 minutes. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased at 10 minutes, returned to baseline at 20 minutes, and was increased again at 60 minutes. Heart rate, cardiac output, cardiac index, and rate pressure product were decreased at 5 minutes, and with the exception of cardiac output, remained so for 60 minutes. Cardiac output returned to the baseline value at 30 minutes. All calves recovered without complications. We concluded that tiletamine-zolazepam (4 mg/kg iv)-xylazine (0.1 mg/kg iv) is a safe and useful anesthetic regimen for use in calves.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Hemodynamic and analgesic effects of medetomidine (15 µg/kg of body weight, im) and etomidate (0.5 mg/kg, iv, loading dose; 50 µg/kg/min. constant infusion) were evaluated in 6 healthy adult Beagles. Instrumentation was performed during isoflurane/oxygen-maintained anesthesia. Before initiation of the study, isoflurane was allowed to reach end-tidal concentration ≤ 0.5%, when baseline measurements were recorded. Medetomidine and atropine (0.044 mg/kg) were given im after recording of baseline values. Ten minutes later, the loading dose of etomidate was given im, and constant infusion was begun and continued for 60 minutes. Oxygen was administered via endotracheal tube throughout the study. Analgesia was evaluated by use of the standard tail clamp technique and a direct-current nerve stimulator.

Sinoatrial and atrial-ventricular blocks occurred in 4 of 6 dogs within 2 minutes after administration of a medetomidine-atropine combination, but disappeared within 8 minutes. Apnea did not occur after administration of the etomidate loading dose. Analgesia was complete and consistent throughout 60 minutes of etomidate infusion. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) increased systemic vascular resistance and decreased cardiac output. Etomidate infusion caused a decrease in respiratory function, but minimal changes in hemodynamic values. Time from termination of etomidate infusion to extubation, sternal recumbency, standing normally, and walking normally were 17.3 ± 9.4, 43.8 ± 14.2, 53.7 ± 11.9, and 61.0 ± 10.9 minutes, respectively. All recoveries were smooth and unremarkable. We concluded that this anesthetic drug combination, at the dosages used, is a safe technique in healthy Beagles.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research