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  • Author or Editor: Frederik J. Derksen x
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SUMMARY

The effect of iv administration of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist xylazine hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg of body weight) was examined in ponies with recurrent obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly called heaves. Six ponies with the disease (principals) were studied during clinical remission and during an acute attack of airway obstruction precipitated by stabling and feeding of dusty hay. Six control ponies were also studied. In principal ponies with airway obstruction, xylazine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased pulmonary resistance and increased dynamic compliance, but did not affect Pa o 2 or Pa co 2 . The α2-antagonist yohimbine blocked the pulmonary effects of xylazine. Administration of saline solution was without effect in both groups of ponies at all periods and xylazine did not have effect in controls or in principals in clinical remission.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

During acute bouts of recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) in horses, neutrophils that are capable of increased production of reactive oxygen species accumulate in the airways. In the study reported here, the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 µM to 0.1M), one of these reactive oxygen species products, on the responses of isolated trachealis muscle of horses was determined. Before and after incubation with H2O2, contractile responses to acetylcholine, electrical field stimulation (efs), 127 mM KCl, and relaxation responses to isoproterenol and activation of the nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibitory response (iNANC) were evaluated. Beginning at 1 mM, H2O2 contracted trachealis muscle in a concentration-dependent manner. This contraction was unaffected by atropine (1 µM), tetrodotoxin (1 µM), or 1 µM meclofenamate. Contraction of trachealis muscle in response to H2O2 is, therefore, not attributable to release of prostaglandins, acetylcholine, or other neurotransmitters. Above a concentration of 0.1 mM, H2O2 depressed the responses to efs, acetylcholine, and KCl in a concentration-dependent manner. At 0.1M, H2O2 decreased the maximal responses to efs, acetylcholine, and KCl by 62.7 ± 7.2, 60.58 ± 6.12, and 37.8 ± 9.54%, respectively. In the presence of meclofenamate (1 µM), partial but significant protection against 1 to 100 mM H2O2 was observed. In tracheal strips contracted with 0.3 µM methacholine, H2O2 had no effect on the isoproterenol concentration-response curve. Up to a concentration of 100 mM, H2O2 had no effect on iNANC response. However, in the presence of 100 mM H2O2, this response was abolished in 2 of 4 horses. We conclude that high concentrations of H2O2 affected the responses of airway smooth muscle by actions on neurotransmission, muscarinic receptors, and downstream from receptors; some of the H2O2 effects were in part mediated by cyclooxygenase products; and H2O2 had no effect on β-adrenergic or iNANC-induced relaxation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Once-daily administration of aminoglycosides may be a safe and effective therapeutic regimen, on the basis of the microbiologic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of these antibiotics. This study was designed to determine serum and tissue concentrations following IV administration of gentamicin, at dosages of 6.6 mg/kg of body weight, every 24 hours, and 2.2 mg/kg, every 8 hours, for 10 days in adult horses. Nephrotoxicosis from these dosage regimens also was compared, and microbiologic effects, including postantibiotic effects, were determined with various concentrations of gentamicin against an equine clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment at the 6.6-mg/kg dosage resulted in maximal serum concentrations (77.93 ± 19.90 μg/ml, mean ± sem) and area under the concentration-vs-time curves (83.79 ± 14.97 μg.h/ml) that were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those following treatment at the 2.2-mg/kg dosage (5.05 ± 0.50 μg/ml and 6.03 ± 0.66 μg.h/ml, respectively). Nephrotoxicosis was not induced with either dosage regimen, and postantibiotic effects were prolonged with a higher gentamicin concentration. This study provided evidence to support the use of once-daily gentamicin treatment in adult horses.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research