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  • Author or Editor: Francisco Tendillo x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the local analgesic effect of ketamine in a palmar digital nerve block at the base of the proximal sesamoid (abaxial sesamoid block) in horses.

Animals—36 mature healthy Andalusian horses.

Procedure—Horses were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 9 horses each and received an abaxial sesamoid block in a randomly chosen forelimb with 1 of the following: saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, 1% ketamine solution, 2% ketamine solution, or 3% ketamine solution. To determine analgesia, the radiant heat lamp-hoof withdrawal model was used as a noxious thermal stimulus. Before each nerve block, baseline hoof withdrawal reflex latency (HWRL, time between lamp illumination and withdrawal of the hoof) was determined; after the nerve block, local analgesic effects were determined by measuring HWRL at 2 and 5 minutes after injection and then every 5 minutes for a total period of 1 hour.

Results—Significant differences in HWRL were found between baseline values and values at 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with ketamine. Significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 10 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 1 or 2% ketamine solution. Similarly, significant differences were found between HWRL values at every time point from 2 to 15 minutes following a nerve block with saline solution, compared with 3% ketamine solution.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Abaxial sesamoid block with ketamine ensures adequate analgesia in horses with an onset of action of 2 minutes and a maximal duration of action of 15 minutes. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:475–478)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical effects and pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in plasma and synovial fluid after intraosseous regional limb perfusion (IORLP) in horses and to compare results with those obtained after IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP).

Animals—6 horses.

Procedures—1 forelimb of each horse received vancomycin hydrochloride (300 mg in 60 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) via IORLP; the contralateral limb received 60 mL of saline solution (control). Solutions were injected into the medullary cavity of the distal portion of the third metacarpal bone. Synovial fluid from the metacarpophalangeal (MTCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and blood were collected prior to perfusion and 15, 30, 45, 65, and 90 minutes after beginning IORLP, and synovial fluid from the MTCP joint only and blood were collected 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after beginning IORLP. Plasma urea and creatinine concentrations and clinical appearance of the MTCP joint region and infusion sites were determined daily for 7 days. Results were compared with those of a separate IVRLP study.

Results—Clinical complications were not observed after IORLP. Mean vancomycin concentration in the MTCP joint was 4 μg/mL for 24 hours after IORLP. Compared with IORLP, higher vancomycin concentrations were detected in the DIP joint after IVRLP. Compared with IVRLP, higher vancomycin concentrations were detected in the MTCP joint for a longer duration after IORLP.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IORLP with 300 mg of vancomycin in a 0.5% solution was safe and may be clinically useful in horses. Intravenous and intraosseous routes may be better indicated for infectious processes in the DIP and MTCP joints, respectively.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research