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  • Author or Editor: Francesca Del Chicca x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe the perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.

ANIMALS 11 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES Each dog was anesthetized and underwent morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen. On the MRI images, a region of interest (ROI) was established for each of 6 structures (aorta, caudal vena cava, portal vein, hepatic parenchyma, splenic parenchyma, and skeletal [epaxial] muscle). The signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images, and the normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma. Dogs also underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirate samples and biopsy specimens were obtained from the liver for cytologic and histologic examination.

RESULTS Cytologic and histologic results suggested that the liver was clinically normal in all dogs. Perfusion-weighted MRI parameters varied among the 6 ROIs. The mean ± SD ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 0.84 × 10−3 mm2/s ± 0.17 × 10−3 mm2/s, and the mean normalized ADC for the liver was 1.8 ± 0.4.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the liver in healthy dogs. Additional studies on dogs of various breeds with and without hepatopathies are necessary to validate and refine these findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To describe perfusion and diffusion characteristics of the liver, spleen, and kidneys of healthy adult male cats as determined by morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI.

ANIMALS 12 healthy adult male cats.

PROCEDURES Each cat was anesthetized. Morphological, perfusion-weighted, and diffusion-weighted MRI of the cranial aspect of the abdomen was performed. A region of interest (ROI) was established on MRI images for each of the following structures: liver, spleen, cortex and medulla of both kidneys, and skeletal muscle. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated for the hepatic and splenic parenchyma and kidneys on diffusion-weighted MRI images. The normalized ADC for the liver was calculated as the ratio of the ADC for the hepatic parenchyma to the ADC for the splenic parenchyma.

RESULTS Perfusion-weighted MRI variables differed among the 5 ROIs. Median ADC of the hepatic parenchyma was 1.38 × 10−3 mm2/s, and mean ± SD normalized ADC for the liver was 1.86 ± 0.18. Median ADC of the renal cortex and renal medulla was 1.65 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.93 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results provided preliminary baseline information about the diffusion and perfusion characteristics of structures in the cranial aspect of the abdomen of healthy adult male cats. Additional studies of cats of different sex and age groups as well as with and without cranial abdominal pathological conditions are necessary to validate and refine these findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the change in mean hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) during body weight gain in cats by use of MRI.

ANIMALS

12 purpose-bred adult neutered male cats.

PROCEDURES

The cats underwent general health and MRI examination at time 0 (before dietary intervention) and time 1 (after 40 weeks of being fed high-energy food ad libitum). Sequences included multiple-echo gradient-recalled echo MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI with 3 b values (0, 400, and 800 s/mm2). Variables (body weight and the HFF and ADC in selected regions of interest in the liver parenchyma) were compared between time points by Wilcoxon paired-sample tests. Relationships among variables were assessed with generalized mixed-effects models.

RESULTS

Median body weight was 4.5 and 6.5 kg, mean ± SD HFF was 3.39 ± 0.89% and 5.37 ± 1.92%, and mean ± SD hepatic ADC was 1.21 ± 0.08 × 10−3 mm2/s and 1.01 ± 0.2 × 10−3 mm2/s at times 0 and 1, respectively. Significant differences between time points were found for body weight, HFF, and ADC. The HFF was positively associated with body weight and ADC was negatively associated with HFF.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Similar to findings in people, cats had decreasing hepatic ADC as HFF increased. Protons associated with fat tissue in the liver may reduce diffusivity, resulting in a lower ADC than in liver with lower HFF. Longer studies and evaluation of cats with different nutritional states are necessary to further investigate these findings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland of healthy sexually intact adult dogs as determined by use of diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted MRI.

ANIMALS

12 healthy sexually intact adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Ultrasonography of the prostate gland was performed. Subsequently, each dog was anesthetized, and morphological, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion-weighted MRI of the caudal aspect of the abdomen was performed. The apparent diffusion coefficient was calculated for the prostate gland parenchyma in diffusion-weighted MRI images in the central ventral and peripheral dorsal areas. Perfusion variables were examined in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the ventral and dorsal areas of the prostate gland and in the gluteal musculature. Signal intensity was determined, and a time-intensity curve was generated for each ROI.

RESULTS

Results of ultrasonographic examination of the prostate gland revealed no abnormalities for any dog. Median apparent diffusion coefficient of the prostate gland was 1.51 × 10−3 mm2/s (range, 1.04 × 10−3 mm2/s to 1.86 × 10−3 mm2/s). Perfusion-weighted MRI variables for the ROIs differed between the prostate gland parenchyma and gluteal musculature.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results provided baseline information about diffusion and perfusion characteristics of the prostate gland in healthy sexually intact adult dogs. Additional studies with dogs of various ages and breeds, with and without abnormalities of the prostate gland, will be necessary to validate these findings and investigate clinical applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research