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To determine the most common ocular lesions in horses with lymphosarcoma.


Retrospective study.


79 horses histologically confirmed to have lymphosarcoma.


Ophthalmic examinations were performed by a single individual.


21 of 79 horses had lesions involving the eye or ocular adnexa. Infiltration of the palpebral conjunctiva and eyelids was the most common lesion (n = 11). Other lesions included uveitis (n = 4), corneoscleral masses (2), third eyelid masses (2), and diffuse retrobulbar infiltrates (2).

Clinical Implications

In horses with lymphosarcoma, ocular lesions may precede or be more obvious than lymph node enlargement or signs of visceral involvement. Early recognition of ocular lesions suggestive of lymphosarcoma may allow a more rapid diagnosis of lymphosarcoma in horses. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:852-854)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy goats.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.

Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12) while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9 and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations, respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme activities were within reference limits at all times in all except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been anesthetized with halothane and had the longest duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities were seen on histologic examination of liver specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare small intestinal inflammation with gastric inflammation in horses with and without equine gastric glandular disease (EGGD), we evaluated endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic findings of the glandular stomach and microscopic findings of the small intestine.


36 horses.


Horses underwent endoscopy and were scored for EGGD. After euthanasia, stomachs were collected and macroscopically evaluated. Normal pyloric mucosa, glandular lesions, and small intestinal (duodenum, mid-jejunum, and ileum) samples were collected and processed for microscopic examination. Cellular infiltrate was scored. Immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD20, and Iba-1) was performed on the ventral pylorus and small intestine of horses with mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. A Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship of EGGD grade with gastric glandular inflammation, and the relationships of cellular infiltrate type and severity among glandular stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.


Gastrointestinal inflammation was common, with gastric inflammatory infiltrate identified in 92%, duodenal inflammatory infiltrate in 83%, jejunal inflammatory infiltrate in 92%, and ileal inflammatory infiltrate in 92% of horses. Endoscopic evidence of gastric disease (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4) was not associated with the presence or severity of duodenal, jejunal, or ileal inflammation. Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2 was associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation grade ≥ 2. This was a convenience sample of horses presenting for euthanasia. Medical history (including deworming history) was unknown.


Gastric lymphoplasmacytic inflammation is associated with duodenal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation but not more distal small intestinal inflammation. Intestinal inflammation is not associated with endoscopic findings (hyperemia or EGGD grade ≥ 2/4).

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.

Animals—6 healthy horses.

Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.

Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association