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Objective—To assess long-term effects and risk factors for the efficacy of hyperimmunization protocols against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) during a longitudinal field study of dairy and dairy-beef mixed farms.

Animals—Approximately 7,700 cows from 72 farms.

Procedures—Farms were assigned to 3 treatment groups (hyperimmunization groups [HIGs] 1 and 2, which were hyperimmunized with glycoprotein E [gE]–deleted marker vaccines, and a nonintervention group [NIG]). Cattle in HIG 1 were initially vaccinated with an attenuated vaccine, whereas cattle in HIG 2 were initially vaccinated with an inactivated-virus vaccine. Cattle in both HIGs received booster inoculations with inactivated-virus vaccines at 6-month intervals. The risk for gE seroconversion was compared among experimental groups via a shared frailty model with a piecewise constant baseline risk to correct for seasonal and secular effects.

Results—Risk for gE seroconversion significantly decreased over time for the HIGs, compared with the NIG. Seasonal changes in the risk of gE seroconversion were detected, with a higher risk during winter periods, compared with grazing periods. No significant difference was detected between HIGs 1 and 2. The only significant risk factor was the number of buildings for cattle on a farm; the higher the number of buildings, the lower the risk for gE seroconversion. Prevalence of IBR decreased over time in both HIGs but remained constant or increased in the NIG.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hyperimmunization via repeated administration of attenuated and inactivated-virus gE-deleted marker vaccines as well as inactivated-virus vaccines may provide a method for control of IBR.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To compare cellular and humoral immune responses of beef (Belgian White and Blue [BWB]) and dairy (Friesian-Holstein [FH]) cattle to Psoroptes ovis infestation and to determine whether P ovis infestation impaired immune responses to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBR) vaccine or an immunogenic protein (keyhole-limpet hemocyanin [KLH]).


19 BWB and 6 FH 1-year-old calves.


2 trials were performed. In each trial, 7 (trial 1) or 6 (trial 2) BWB calves and 3 FH calves were experimentally infested with P ovis and 3 BWB calves were maintained as uninfested controls. Animals were inoculated with KLH and IBR virus vaccine twice; 3 BWB calves in each trial were treated with ivermectin. Serum antibody responses to KLH, IBR virus, and P ovis were measured by use of ELISA. A lymphocyte transformation assay was used to determine nonspecific responses to 3 mitogens and specific lymphocyte reactivity to P ovis antigen.


In each trial, 3 BWB and 3 FH calves developed clinical signs of psoroptic mange and mites could be recovered. Infested and control animals developed similar antibody titers to KLH and IBR virus. Antibodies to P ovis were detected early in some infested calves, and this was correlated with a marked cell-mediated immune response. Lymphocyte responsiveness to the 3 mitogens was not significantly different among groups.


In these calves, infestation with P ovis induced a marked humoral and cell-mediated immune response. Immunosuppression was not evident. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:583–587)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research