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  • Author or Editor: Erin J. Annandale x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine whether disruption of adenine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration and subsequent adenine nucleotide degradation are potential mechanisms for rhabdomyolysis in horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) performing submaximal exercise.

Animals—7 horses with PSSM and 4 control horses.

Procedures—Horses with PSSM performed 2-minute intervals of a walk and trot exercise on a treadmill until muscle cramping developed. Control horses exercised similarly for 20 minutes. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured 4 hours after exercise. Citrate synthase (CS), 3-OH-acylCoA dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities prior to exercise and glucose- 6-phosphate (G-6-P) and lactate concentrations before and after exercise were measured in gluteal muscle specimens. Adenine triphosphate, diphosphate (ADP), monophosphate (AMP), and inosine monophosphate (IMP) concentrations were measured before and after exercise in whole muscle, single muscle fibers, and pooled single muscle fibers.

Results—Serum CK activity ranged from 255 to 22,265 U/L in horses with PSSM and 133 to 278 U/L in control horses. Muscle CS activity was lower in horses with PSSM, compared with control horses. Muscle G-6-P, lactate, ATP, ADP, and AMP concentrations in whole muscle did not change with exercise in any horses. Concentration of IMP increased with exercise in whole muscle, pooled muscle fibers, and single muscle fibers in horses with PSSM. Large variations in ATP and IMP concentrations were observed within single muscle fibers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increased IMP concentration without depletion of ATP in individual muscle fibers of horses with PSSM during submaximal exercise indicates an energy imbalance that may contribute to the development of exercise intolerance and rhabdomyolysis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:839–845)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine concentrations of proglycogen (PG), macroglycogen (MG), glucose, and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) in skeletal muscle of horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM) before and after performing light submaximal exercise.

Animals—6 horses with PSSM and 4 control horses.

Procedures—Horses with PSSM completed repeated intervals of 2 minutes of walking followed by 2 minutes of trotting on a treadmill until muscle cramping developed. Four untrained control horses performed a similar exercise test for up to 20 minutes. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured before and 4 hours after exercise. Concentrations of total glycogen (Gt), PG, MG, G-6-P, free glucose, and lactate were measured in biopsy specimens of gluteal muscle obtained before and after exercise.

Results—Mean serum CK activity was 26 times higher in PSSM horses than in control horses after exercise. Before exercise, muscle glycogen concentrations were 1.5, 2.2, and 1.7 times higher for PG, MG, and Gt, respectively, in PSSM horses, compared with concentrations in control horses. No significant changes in Gt, PG, MG, G-6-P, and lactate concentrations were detected after exercise. However, free glucose concentrations in skeletal muscle increased significantly in PSSM horses after exercise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of the results suggests that glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is augmented in horses with PSSM after light exercise. There is excessive storage of PG and MG in horses with PSSM, and high concentrations of the 2 glycogen fractions may affect functional interactions between glycogenolytic and glycogen synthetic enzymes and glycosomes.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of dexamethasone on insulin sensitivity, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity 4 hours after exercise, and muscle glycogen concentration in Quarter Horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM).

Animals—4 adult Quarter Horses with PSSM.

Procedure—A 2 × 2 crossover design was used with dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administered IV every 48 hours. Horses were exercised on a treadmill daily for 3 wk/treatment with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Serum CK activity was measured daily 4 hours after exercise. At the end of each treatment period, serum cortisol concentrations were measured, a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) technique was performed, and muscle glycogen content was determined.

Results—Mean ± SEM serum cortisol concentration was significantly lower after 48 hours for the dexamethasone treatment (0.38 ± 0.08 mg/dL), compared with the saline treatment (4.15 ± 0.40 mg/dL). Dexamethasone significantly decreased the rate of glucose infusion necessary to maintain euglycemia during the HEC technique, compared with the saline treatment. Muscle glycogen concentrations and mean CK activity after exercise were not altered by dexamethasone treatment, compared with the saline treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dexamethasone significantly reduced whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in Quarter Horses with PSSM after a 3-week period but did not diminish serum CK response to exercise or muscle glycogen concentrations in these 4 horses. Therefore, a decrease in glucose uptake for 3 weeks did not appear to alleviate exertional rhabdomyolysis in these horses. It is possible that long-term treatment may yield other results. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1718–1723)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research