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To compare pharmacokinetics of levetiracetam in serum and CSF of cats after oral administration of extended-release (ER) levetiracetam.


9 healthy cats.


Cats received 1 dose of a commercially available ER levetiracetam product (500 mg, PO). Thirteen blood and 10 CSF samples were collected over a 24-hour period for pharmacokinetic analysis. After 1 week, cats received 1 dose of a compounded ER levetiracetam formulation (500 mg, PO), and samples were obtained at the same times for analysis.


CSF concentrations of levetiracetam closely paralleled serum concentrations. There were significant differences between the commercially available product and the compounded formulation for mean ± SD serum maximum concentration (Cmax; 126 ± 33 μg/mL and 169 ± 51 μg/mL, respectively), Cmax corrected for dose (0.83 ± 0.10 μg/mL/mg and 1.10 ± 0.28 μg/mL/mg, respectively), and time to Cmax (5.1 ± 1.6 hours and 3.1 ± 1.5 hours, respectively). Half-life for the commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam was 4.3 ± 2.0 hours and 5.0 ± 1.6 hours, respectively.


The commercially available product and compounded formulation of ER levetiracetam both maintained concentrations in healthy cats 12 hours after oral administration that have been found to be therapeutic in humans (ie, 5 μg/mL). Results of this study supported dosing intervals of 12 hours, and potentially 24 hours, for oral administration of ER levetiracetam to cats. Monitoring of serum concentrations of levetiracetam can be used as an accurate representation of levetiracetam concentrations in CSF of cats.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare effectiveness and complications associated with peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia with bupivacaine in cats.

Animals—6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures—Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and received a peribulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mL), iopamidol (0.5 mL), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL) or retrobulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.75 mL) and iopamidol (0.25 mL) in a crossover study with ≥ 2 weeks between treatments. The contralateral eye was the control. Injectate distribution was evaluated with CT. After atipamezole administration, periocular and corneal sensations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours.

Results—All peribulbar and 3 of 6 retrobulbar injections resulted in CT evidence of intraconal injectate. Corneal sensation and periocular skin sensation were absent or significantly reduced relative to that for control eyes for 3 hours after peribulbar injection. Mean ± SD IOP immediately after injection was significantly higher for eyes with peribulbar injections (33 ± 12 mm Hg) than for control eyes or eyes with retrobulbar injections (both 14 ± 4 mm Hg) but 10 minutes later decreased to 18 ± 3 mm Hg. Exophthalmos, chemosis, and ptosis were evident in most injected eyes, and irritation was evident in 3 of 6 peribulbar-injected and 1 of 6 retrobulbar-injected eyes. All conditions resolved within 14 hours.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Peribulbar injection resulted in intraconal deposition of bupivicaine in a higher percentage of cats than did retrobulbar injection and induced notable anesthesia relative to that for the control eye; however, IOP increased temporarily.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research