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  • Author or Editor: Ellison Bentley x
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Objective—To evaluate the usefulness of high-resolution ultrasonography (HRUS) for measurements of anterior segment structures in canine eyes.

Animals—4 clinically normal Beagles.

Procedure—Images were obtained from 8 eyes with a handheld 20-MHz transducer. Eleven anterior segment structures on each image were measured 5 times by 2 independent observers. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for measurements were used to assess intraobserver reliability. Interobserver reliability was assessed by comparing measurements obtained by the 2 observers from the same images. Five images were sequentially obtained from 2 locations (ie, superior and temporal) to evaluate image reproducibility. Anterior segment structures were measured once on each image; image reproducibility was assessed by use of the CV for each parameter measured. Imaging location was assessed by comparison of CV for measurements from each location.

Results—CVs were < 10% for observer A for all measurements except the ciliary cleft area (11.63%). The CVs were > 10% for observer B for measurements of the angle recess area (18.51%) and ciliary cleft width (17.44%) and area (16.01%). Significant differences in measurements between observers were found for 5 of 11 anterior segment structures. Imaging the superior aspect of the globe provided the most reproducible images, although image reproducibility was still somewhat variable, with the highest and lowest CVs for measurements of 33.01% and 11.32%, respectively, in the superior position.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—High-resolution ultrasound images can be used to reliably measure various anterior segment structures. Clinically relevant findings in the anterior segment of canine eyes may be detectable by use of HRUS. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1775–1779)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the refractive state of eyes in various breeds of dogs to identify breeds susceptible to ametropias.

Animals—1,440 dogs representing 90 breeds.

Procedures—In each dog, 1 drop of 1% cyclopentolate or 1% tropicamide was applied to each eye, and a Canine Eye Registration Foundation examination was performed. Approximately 30 minutes after drops were administered, the refractive state of each eye was assessed via streak retinoscopy. Dogs were considered ametropic (myopic or hyperopic) when the mean refractive state (the resting focus of the eye at rest relative to visual infinity) exceeded ± 0.5 diopter (D). Anisometropia was diagnosed when the refractive error of each eye in a pair differed by > 1 D.

Results—Mean ± SD refractive state of all eyes examined was −0.05 ± 1.36 D (emmetropia). Breeds in which the mean refractive state was myopic (≤ −0.5 D) included Rottweiler, Collie, Miniature Schnauzer, and Toy Poodle. Degree of myopia increased with increasing age across all breeds. Breeds in which the mean refractive state was hyperopic (≥ +0.5 D) included Australian Shepherd, Alaskan Malamute, and Bouvier des Flandres. Astigmatism was detected in 1% (14/1,440) of adult (≥ 1 year of age) dogs; prevalence of astigmatism among German Shepherd Dogs was 3.3% (3/90). Anisometropia was detected in 6% (87/1,440) of all dogs and in 8.9% (8/90) of German Shepherd Dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Refractive states of canine eyes varied widely and were influenced by breed and age. In dogs expected to have high visual function (eg, performance dogs), determination of refractive state is recommended prior to intensive training.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research