CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-week-old 0.73-kg (1.6-lb) castrated male domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was referred for exploratory laparotomy because of pneumoperitoneum and possible septic peritonitis after being bitten by the owner's dog.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Abdominal exploration revealed a large laceration of the duodenum, tears of the jejunal mesentery, and 2 small tears in the abdominal wall. Chylous abdominal effusion developed 48 hours after surgery.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Postoperative care included supportive treatment, analgesia, and antimicrobials. An abdominal drain was placed during the laparotomy and enabled monitoring of abdominal fluid production. Enteral feeding was provided through an esophagostomy tube. The chylous fluid production rapidly decreased after treatment with octreotide was initiated, and the ferret improved. Chyloabdomen resolved after 8 days of hospitalization and medical treatment.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that chylous ascites can potentially develop secondary to blunt abdominal trauma in ferrets. In this ferret, chyloabdomen was successfully treated with octreotide administration and abdominal drainage.
Objective—To determine the level of clinical agreement
between 2 methods for the measurement of
resting energy expenditure (REE).
Design—Prospective case series.
Procedure—Oxygen consumption (O2) and CO2 production
(CO2) were measured with an open-flow indirect
calorimeter in healthy (n = 10) and ill (67) dogs.
Measurements were collected at 3 time periods on 2
days. The O2 and the CO2 measurements were then
used to calculate the REE values.
Results—Mean values of measured (MREE) and
predicted (PREE) REEs in healthy dogs and a dog
with medical illnesses or trauma were not significantly
different. There was a significant difference
on day 2 between the MREE and PREE in the group
of dogs recovering from major surgery. More importantly,
there was significant variation between the
PREE and MREE on an individual-dog basis. The
PREE only agreed to within ± 20% of the MREE in
51% to 57% of the dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The level of
agreement between these two methods for determining
the 24-hour REE was poor in individual dogs.
The level of disagreement between the 2 methods
indicates that these methods may not be used interchangeably
in a clinical setting. Measurement of REE
by use of indirect calorimetry may be the only reliable
method of determining REE in an individual ill or
healthy dog. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:58–64)
Objective—To assess accuracy and reliability of
open-flow indirect calorimetry in dogs.
Animals—13 clinically normal dogs.
Procedure—In phase 1, oxygen consumption per
kilogram of body weight (VO2kg) was determined in 6
anesthetized dogs by use of open-flow indirect
calorimetry before and after determination of VO2/kg
by use of closed-circuit spirometry. In phase 2, four
serial measurements of VO2 and carbon dioxide production
(VCO2) were obtained in 7 awake dogs by use
of indirect calorimetry on 2 consecutive days. Resting
energy expenditure (REE) was calculated.
Results—Level of clinical agreement was acceptable
between results of indirect calorimetry and spirometry.
Mean VO2/kg determined by use of calorimetry
before spirometry was significantly greater than that
obtained after spirometry. In phase 2, intraclass correlation
coefficients (ICC) for REE and VO2 were 0.779
and 0.786, respectively, when data from all 4 series
were combined. When the first series was discounted,
ICC increased to 0.904 and 0.894 for REE and VO2,
respectively. The most reliable and least variable measures
of REE and VO2 were obtained when the first 2
series were discounted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Open-flow
indirect calorimetry may be used clinically to obtain a
measure of VO2 and an estimate of REE in dogs. Serial
measurements of REE and VO2 in clinically normal
dogs are reliable, but a 10-minute adaption period
should be allowed, the first series of observations
should be discounted, multiple serial measurements
should be obtained, and REE. (Am J Vet Res