To evaluate physical compatibility of small animal (SAE) and large animal (LAE) injectable formulations of enrofloxacin with select IV fluids and drugs.
162 admixtures containing SAE or LAE with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, lactated Ringer solution (LRS), Plasma-Lyte A (PLA), 6% hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 (HES), metoclopramide, or ampicillin-sulbactam.
In the first of 2 simultaneously conducted experiments, admixtures containing enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) and a volume of IV fluid that would be administered over a 20-minute period when dosed at the maintenance infusion rate (40 mL/kg/d for saline solution, LRS, and PLA and 20 mL/kg/d for HES) were created. In the second experiment, enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg) was admixed with saline solution (40 mL/kg/d) and metoclopramide (2 mg/kg/d) or ampicillin-sulbactam (30 mg/kg). In both experiments, admixture components were infused into a flask over 20 minutes assuming patient weights of 5, 10, and 20 kg. Admixtures were created by use of undiluted SAE and SAE diluted 1:1 with saline solution and undiluted LAE and LAE diluted 1:1 and 1:10 with saline solution. Admixtures were assessed for physical incompatibility at 0, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after completion of mixing. Physical incompatibility was defined as gross precipitation, cloudiness, Tyndall effect, or change in turbidity.
Admixtures containing undiluted SAE or LAE were physically incompatible with saline solution, PLA, LRS, and HES. Because saline solution was used to dilute SAE and LAE, all admixtures containing diluted SAE or LAE were also physically incompatible. Physical compatibility of enrofloxacin with metoclopramide or ampicillin-sulbactam could not be assessed because those admixtures also contained saline solution.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Enrofloxacin was physically incompatible with all tested solutions.
Objective—To determine whether lipid particle coalescence develops in veterinary parenteral nutrition (PN) admixture preparations that are kept at room temperature (23°C) for > 48 hours and whether that coalescence is prevented by admixture filtration, refrigeration, or agitation.
Sample Population—15 bags of veterinary PN solutions.
Procedures—Bags of a PN admixture preparation containing a lipid emulsion were suspended and maintained under different experimental conditions (3 bags/group) for 96 hours while admixtures were dispensed to simulate IV fluid administration (rate, 16 mL/h). Bags were kept static at 4°C (refrigeration); kept at 23°C (room temperature) and continuously agitated; kept at room temperature and agitated for 5 minutes every 4 hours; kept static at room temperature and filtered during delivery; or kept static at room temperature (control conditions). Admixture samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours and examined via transmission electron microscopy to determine lipid particle diameters. At 96 hours, 2 samples were collected at a location distal to the filter from each bag in that group for bacterial culture.
Results—Distribution of lipid particle size in the control preparations and experimentally treated preparations did not differ significantly. A visible oil layer developed in continuously agitated preparations by 72 hours. Bacterial cultures of filtered samples yielded no growth.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Data indicated that the veterinary PN admixtures kept static at 23°C are suitable for use for at least 48 hours. Manipulations of PN admixtures appear unnecessary to prolong lipid particle stability, and continuous agitation may hasten lipid breakdown.
OBJECTIVE To compare time to achieve vascular access (TTVA) between an ultrasound-guided technique (UST) and landmark-based technique (LMT) for central venous catheter (CVC) placement in healthy anesthetized dogs.
ANIMALS 39 purpose-bred hounds.
PROCEDURES Anesthetized dogs that were hemodynamically stable following completion of a terminal surgical exercise were enrolled in the study during 2 phases, with a 45-day intermission between phases. For each dog, a UST and LMT were used for CVC placement via each external jugular vein by 2 operators (criticalist and resident). The TTVA and number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections were recorded for each catheterization. Placement of the CVC was confirmed by contrast fluoroscopy. After euthanasia, a gross dissection was performed during which a hematoma score was assigned to the catheter insertion site. For each phase, nonlinear least squares estimation was used for learning curve analysis of the UST.
RESULTS Median TTVA, number of venipuncture attempts and catheter redirections, and hematoma score did not differ significantly between the 2 operators for either technique. Median TTVA for the UST (45 seconds) was significantly longer than that for the LMT (7 seconds). Learning curve analysis indicated that 8 and 7 UST catheterizations were required to achieve performance stability in phases 1 and 2, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the UST was comparable to the LMT for CVC placement in healthy dogs. The extra time required to perform the UST was not clinically relevant. Additional studies evaluating the UST for CVC placement in clinically ill dogs are warranted.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ultrasonographically measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and acute increases in intracranial pressure (ICP) as measured by an epidural intracranial pressure monitoring system (EICPMS) in healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 young healthy dogs.
PROCEDURES An EICPMS connected to a pressure monitor was used to generate a continuous pressure waveform in each anesthetized dog. A 22-gauge IV catheter was inserted into the brain parenchyma through the contralateral parietal bone, and 0.5 to 2.0 mL of anticoagulated autologous blood was injected at predetermined intervals. At baseline (immediately after EICPMS placement) and following each injection, the ICP as indicated by EICPMS was recorded, and 3 ultrasonographic images of the optic nerve sheath of each eye were obtained. The ONSD was measured at maximum diameter and at 5 mm caudal to the optic disk.
RESULTS In linear models, the maximum ONSD was positively associated with increasing ICP. Specifically, the rate of maximum ONSD increase was greater for pressures ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline (0.0534 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase) than for pressures > 40 mm Hg above baseline (0.0087 mm/1 mm Hg ICP increase). The relationship of ICP to maximum ONSD was slightly nonlinear and best explained by comparison of fractional polynomial regression models.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE ICP was positively and nonlinearly associated with increasing maximum ONSD, especially when ICP was ≤ 20 mm Hg above baseline, supporting the conclusion that ultrasonographic measurement of maximum ONSD may provide a noninvasive monitoring tool for evaluation of ICP in dogs. Further research is needed to assess the utility of these measurements in clinical patients.