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Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine whether experimental inoculation with a field strain of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype-2 (EHDV-2) suspected of causing clinical disease in naturally infected cattle would cause clinical disease in calves.

Animals

8 calves.

Procedure

A strain of EHDV-2 isolated from a white-tailed deer that died of hemorrhagic disease was passaged twice in deer and used to inoculate 6 calves SC and ID; the other 2 calves were used as controls. Physical examinations, CBC, lymphocyte blastogenesis assays, and coagulation assays were performed; rectal temperature, interferon production, and serum neutralizing antibody responses were measured; and virus isolation was attempted every other day for 21 days after inoculation and then every fourth day for another 30 days. Calves were euthanatized on postinoculation day 51, and necropsy was performed.

Results

Calves inoculated with EHDV-2 became infected, as evidenced by development of viremia and seroconversion. However, the virus did not cause detectable clinical disease, clinicopathologic abnormalities, or gross lesions. Viremia was prolonged despite development of a serum neutralizing antibody response. A white-tailed deer inoculated with the same EHDV-2 strain developed clinical signs of epizootic hemorrhagic disease, demonstrating that the inoculum was virulent.

Conclusion

Calves experimentally infected with EHDV-2 developed viremia and seroconverted but did not develop detectable clinical disease. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:621–626)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated because of sudden onset of severe left forelimb lameness of 4 days' duration.

Clinical Findings—Clinical evaluation and diagnostic perineural analgesia localized the lameness to the distal portion of the left forelimb. Radiography revealed a transverse fracture of the distal phalanx of the left forelimb.

Treatment and Outcome—The horse was treated conservatively with stall rest and stabilization of the hoof with fiberglass cast material and an elevated heel support. These treatments improved the lameness considerably. Over the following 4 months, the horse was exercised at an increasing level; external coaptation of the hoof was removed, and the horse was gradually shod in a flat shoe. At 6 months after injury, the horse had no signs of lameness when working at its previous performance level, but it was euthanized for reasons unrelated to orthopedic disease. Radiographically, the fracture was unapparent; however, results of magnetic resonance imaging and histologic examination of the cadaveric limb confirmed the presence of tissue changes consistent with a healing fracture.

Clinical Relevance—Conservative management of transverse fractures of the distal phalanx of a forelimb may be effective and enable affected horses to be returned to their intended use.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine how viral shedding and development or lack of clinical disease relate to contact transmission of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey (VSV-NJ) in pigs and determine whether pigs infected by contact could infect other pigs by contact.

Animals—63 pigs.

Procedure—Serologically naive pigs were housed in direct contact with pigs that were experimentally inoculated with VSV-NJ via ID inoculation of the apex of the snout, application to a scarified area of the oral mucosa, application to intact oral mucosa, or ID inoculation of the ear. In a second experiment, pigs infected with VSV-NJ by contact were moved and housed with additional naive pigs. Pigs were monitored and sampled daily for clinical disease and virus isolation and were serologically tested before and after infection or contact.

Results—Contact transmission developed only when vesicular lesions were evident. Transmission developed rapidly; contact pigs shed virus as early as 1 day after contact. In pens in which contact transmission was detected, 2 of 3 or 3 of 3 contact pigs were infected.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Transmission was lesion-dependent; however, vesicular lesions often were subtle with few or no clinical signs of infection. Contact transmission was efficient, with resulting infections ranging from subclinical (detected only by seroconversion) to clinical (development of vesicular lesions). Long-term maintenance of VSV-NJ via contact transmission alone appears unlikely. Pigs represent an efficient large-animal system for further study of VSV-NJ pathogenesis and transmission. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:516–520)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research