Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Elaine P Robinson x
  • Refine by Access: Content accessible to me x
Clear All Modify Search
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate and compare effects of epidurally administered morphine, alfentanil, butorphanol, tramadol, and U50488H on avoidance threshold to noxious electrical stimulation over the dermatomes of the perineal, sacral, lumbar, and thoracic regions in horses.

Animals—5 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Using a Latin square complete repeatedmeasures design, horses were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 6 treatments (morphine, alfentanil, butorphanol, tramadol, U50488H, or sterile water) at intervals of at least 7 days. Agents were injected epidurally at the first intercoccygeal epidural space, and electrical stimulation was applied at repeated intervals for 24 hours to the dermatomes of the perineal, sacral, lumbar, and thoracic regions. Avoidance threshold to electrical stimulation was recorded.

Results—Administration of butorphanol, U50488H, and sterile water did not induce change in avoidance threshold. Alfentanil increased avoidance threshold during the first 4 hours, but not significantly. Tramadol and morphine significantly increased threshold and analgesic effects. Complete analgesia (avoidance threshold, > 40 V) in the perineal and sacral areas was achieved 30 minutes after tramadol injection, compared with 6 hours after morphine injection. Duration of complete analgesia was 4 hours and 5 hours after tramadol and morphine injections, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Epidural administration of tramadol and morphine induces long-lasting analgesia in healthy adult horses. Epidural administration of opioids may provide long-lasting analgesia in horses without excitation of the CNS. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1579–1586)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To compare cardiorespiratory and anesthesia effects of IV administered propofol and thiopental in dogs.

Animals

6 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure

Each dog was anesthetized with isoflurane, then a thermistor catheter was inserted in the pulmonary artery. After a minimum of 2.5 hours of recovery, a catheter was placed in a cephalic vein for administration of lactated Ringer's solution and drugs. Propofol (8 mg/kg of body weight) or thiopental (19.4 mg/kg) was administered to each dog in a randomized crossover design study. All dogs were intubated and allowed to breathe 100% oxygen spontaneously. Heart rate and rhythm; systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures; respiratory rate; end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration; tidal volume; and reflexes (toe web pinch, palpebral response, and jaw tone) were measured before and every 2 minutes for the first 10 minutes, then at 15, 30, and 60 minutes after drug administration. Cardiac output was determined at 0, 2, 6, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, and blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 10, and 30 minutes. Time to endotracheal extubation, head lift, and ability to sit sternally and walk unaided were recorded.

Results

3 of 6 dogs in each group were apneic after drug administration. Reflexes were decreased similarly for both anesthetic agents, but were not completely lost. Time to sternal position and walking unaided were significantly shorter in response to propofol.

Conclusion

Anesthesia was rapid; however, respiratory depression and apnea were major adverse effects associated with propofol and thiopental. Propofol has the advantage of inducing rapid, coordinated anesthesia recovery. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1137-1143)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To compare the analgesic effects of epidural administration of morphine (MOR), bupivacaine hydrochloride (BUP), their combination (COM), and 0.9% sterile NaCl solution (SAL) in dogs undergoing hind limb orthopedic surgeries.

Design

Blinded, randomized clinical trial.

Animals

41 healthy dogs admitted for elective orthopedic surgeries involving the pelvis or hind limbs.

Procedure

Analgesic and control agents were administered postoperatively prior to recovery from isoflurane anesthesia. Ten dogs received MOR, 0.1 mg/ kg of body weight; 10 received BUP, 0.5%, 1 ml/10- cm distance from the occipital protuberance to the lumbosacral space; 11 received COM; and 10 received SAL epidurally. Dogs were monitored for 24 hours after epidural injection for pain score, heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent, total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required, and plasma concentrations of cortisol, MOR, and BUP.

Results

Pain scores were significantly lower in dogs in the COM and BUP groups than in dogs in the SAL group. Pain scores also were significantly lower in dogs in the COM group than in dogs in the MOR group. Time to required administration of supplemental analgesic agent was longer for dogs in the COM group than for dogs in the MOR and SAL groups. Total number of supplemental doses of analgesic agent required was lower for dogs in the BUP and COM groups than for dogs in the SAL group.

Clinical Implications

Postoperative epidural administration of COM or BUP alone provides longerlasting analgesia, compared with MOR or SAL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:698-607)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association