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Objective—

To characterize survival times, disease-free intervals, and prognostic variables in ferrets with pancreatic beta cell neoplasia.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

20 ferrets with histologically confirmed pancreatic beta cell tumors.

Procedure—

Medical records of ferrets with pancreatic beta cell tumors were reviewed. Variables such as age, sex, duration of clinical signs, existence of other neoplasia, single versus multiple masses in the pancreas, benign or malignant histologic features, and the type of treatment used at redevelopment of clinical signs were examined to determine their relationship to survival times and disease-free intervals.

Results—

Duration of clinical signs prior to diagnosis and initial surgery was inversely correlated with survival time and disease-free interval. Overall median survival time for all ferrets with pancreatic beta cell tumors was 483 days. Median disease-free interval for ferrets that had abdominal surgery for pancreatic beta cell tumor removal was 240 days. Distant tumor metastasis was not found in this group of ferrets, but local tumor recurrence was common. In 4 ferrets that had a second celiotomy, removal of recurrent pancreatic tumors did not prolong survival but did result in a second disease-free interval.

Clinical Implications—

Pancreatic beta cell tumors should be considered in ferrets over 2 years of age that have clinical signs of seizures, episodic lethargy, ptyalism, ataxia, and hind limb weakness. In the study reported here, complete surgical excision of the tumor resulted in temporary resolution of clinical signs in ferrets; however, redevelopment of clinical signs at a later time was common. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1737–1740)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To categorize histologic lesions affecting the tongue, determine the frequency with which they develop, and identify risk factors associated with their development in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—1,196 dogs.

Procedures—Diagnostic reports of lingual biopsy specimens from dogs evaluated from January 1995 to October 2004 were reviewed.

Results—Neoplasia comprised 54% of lingual lesions. Malignant tumors accounted for 64% of lingual neoplasms and included melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangiosarcoma, and fibrosarcoma. Largebreed dogs, especially Chow Chows and Chinese Shar-Peis, were at increased risk for melanoma. Females of all breeds and Poodles, Labrador Retrievers, and Samoyeds were more likely to have squamous cell carcinomas. Hemangiosarcomas and fibrosarcomas were commonly diagnosed in Border Collies and Golden Retrievers, respectively. Benign neoplasms included squamous papilloma, plasma cell tumor, and granular cell tumor. Small-breed dogs, especially Cocker Spaniels, were at increased risk for plasma cell tumors. Glossitis accounted for 33% of diagnoses; in most cases, the inciting cause was not apparent. Whereas large-breed dogs were more likely to have lingual neoplasia, small-breed dogs were more likely to have glossitis. Calcinosis circumscripta accounted for 4% of lingual lesions and predominately affected young large-breed dogs. The remaining submissions consisted mostly of various degenerative or wound-associated lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The frequency of lingual lesions was not evenly distributed across breeds, sexes, or size classes of dogs. Veterinarians should be aware of the commonly reported lingual lesions in dogs so that prompt diagnosis and appropriate management can be initiated.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate efficacy of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system, used after marginal resection of mammary carcinoma (ie, resection of grossly evident tumor) in mice, to prevent tumor regrowth and metastasis.

Animals

42 female C3H-HeJ mice.

Procedure

Mice were inoculated with mammary carcinoma cells. Between 2 and 6 days later, tumors were marginally resected and mice were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: no treatment (control; n = 14), cisplatin administered intraperitoneally (IP cisplatin; 14), and cisplatin delivered by use of an open-cell polylactic acid system placed within the tumor bed (slow-release cisplatin; 14). Tumor regrowth was measured daily. Mice were euthanatized 14 days after surgery, and complete necropsies were performed.

Results

Tumor regrowth was not detected in the slow-release cisplatin group; however, tumor regrowth was detected in 7 of 14 mice in the IP cisplatin group and 14 of 14 mice in the control group. Median (± SD) number of days to tumor regrowth was 13.5 ± 0.64 and 7.79 ± 0.87 in the IP cisplatin and control groups, respectively. Mice in the IP cisplatin group had significantly delayed tumor regrowth, compared with control mice. Metastases to lungs were detected in 8 of 14 control mice but were not detected in mice in either cisplatin treatment group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The open-cell polylactic acid with cisplatin delivery system was successful in delaying local tumor regrowth and metastasis in mice with marginally resected mammary carcinoma. Use of a controlled-release cisplatin delivery system may be an effective adjunct treatment following excision of mammary carcinoma in humans and other animals. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:1347–1351)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To determine whether alkaline phosphatase activity in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma can be used as a prognostic indicator.

Design—

Retrospective study.

Animals—

75 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma.

Procedure—

Serum total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) activities were determined from archival serum samples obtained at various times during treatment of appendicular osteosarcoma and follow-up evaluations. Associations among activities of TALP and BALP and survival and disease-free intervals, percentage of bone length involved with tumor, histologic subtype, and method of surgical treatment were evaluated.

Results—

High activities of TALP and BALP before surgery were significantly associated with shorter survival and disease-free intervals in dogs undergoing surgery (amputation or limb-sparing procedure) and adjuvant chemotherapy. Activity of BALP significantly decreased in 29 dogs for which postoperative samples were available. Failure of BALP activity to decrease after surgery was correlated with shorter survival and disease-free intervals.

Clinical Implications—

Activities of TALP and BALP in serum are important prognostic factors for appendicular osteosarcoma in dogs. Prognostic factors may help clinicians initiate more aggressive treatment for dogs that are at higher risk of death or relapse. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998:213:1002-1006)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the efficacy of primary re-excision alone for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas after recent incomplete resection, the frequency and clinical importance of detecting residual tumor in resected scars, and prognostic factors associated with the procedure.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—41 dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that had undergone recent incomplete excision of a soft tissue sarcoma at a referring veterinary practice and subsequent re-excision of the scar at the Colorado State University Veterinary Medical Center were reviewed.Owners and referring veterinarians were contacted for follow-up information.Slides from re-excised specimens were reviewed.Dogs that underwent radiation therapy after the re-excision procedure were excluded.

Results—41 dogs met the inclusion criteria, and long-term follow-up information was available for 39 dogs.Median follow-up time was 816 days.Local recurrence of tumor developed in 6 of 39 (15%) dogs, and distant metastasis occurred in 4 of 39 (10%) dogs.Healthy tis sue margins of 0.5 to 3.5 cm were achieved at re-excision. Residual tumor was identified in 9 of 41 (22%) resected scars.No tumor-, patient-, or treatment-related variables were associated with local recurrence except for the presence of liposarcoma or fibrosarcoma or whether fine-needle aspiration had been performed prior to surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—After incomplete resection of soft tissue sarcomas, resection of local tissue should be performed, even if excisable tissue margins appear narrow.A long-term favorable prognosis is achievable without radiation therapy or amputation. The presence of residual tumor in resected scar tissue should not be used to predict local recurrence.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate risk factors for outcome for dogs with adrenal gland tumors with or without invasion of the caudal vena cava treated via adrenalectomy.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—86 dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of adrenal gland tumors.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent adrenalectomy for treatment of an adrenal gland tumor from 1993 to 2009 were reviewed; data collected including signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test findings, treatments prior to surgery, findings at surgery including additional procedures performed and extent of caudal vena caval invasion (local invasion [caudal to the hepatic portion of the vena cava] or extensive invasion [cranial to the hepatic portion of the vena cava]), procedures performed during surgery, histopathologic diagnosis, perioperative complications, follow-up data, and necropsy findings.

Results—Of the 86 dogs, 14 had adenomas, 45 had adrenocortical carcinomas, and 27 had pheochromocytomas. Fourteen dogs had invasion of the caudal vena cava; of these tumors, 7 were locally invasive and 7 were extensively invasive. Risk factors for poor short-term survival (death within 14 days following surgery) were vena caval invasion, extent of invasion, pheochromocytoma, intraoperative transfusion, and postoperative factors including disseminated intravascular coagulation, pancreatitis, hypotension, hypoxemia, and renal failure. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for poor short-term survival revealed that extensive invasion was the most important factor. Regardless of extent of invasion or tumor type, long-term survival was possible.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Invasion of the caudal vena cava, particularly tumor thrombus extension beyond the hepatic hilus, was associated with a higher postoperative mortality rate, but did not affect long-term prognosis in dogs undergoing adrenalectomy because of an adrenal gland tumor.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the expression of Ki67 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitotic index (MI), and microvascular density (MVD) in feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) via immunohistochemical staining on archival tumor tissues and to seek a correlation between these markers and clinical variables.

Sample—22 archived tumor samples of feline oral SCC.

Procedures—Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67, MVD, and EGFR was performed and scored. Patient survival information was obtained from the medical records. These molecular markers as well as MI were correlated with tumor locations and patient survival time.

Results—The 22 tumors had wide variation in Ki67 expression, MI, MVD, and EGFR expression. Tongue SCC had higher MVD than did mandibular and maxillary SCC. Tumor expression of EGFR was inversely proportional to survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that EGFR expression might be a valuable prognostic factor for treatment outcome in feline oral SCC. It also identified higher angiogenesis in tongue SCC, compared with mandibular and maxillary SCC, which may account for a different clinical outcome. Further prospective characterization of feline oral SCC may provide a better understanding of the underlying molecular factors that drive its behavior and offer the possibility for future patient-specific treatment plans.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the outcome in terms of progression-free interval (PFI) and overall survival time (ST) after curative-intent resection of oral melanoma in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—70 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—An electronic medical record search and review was performed for dogs that underwent curative-intent resection of oral melanoma (May 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011). Information gathered included signalment, oral location of tumor, staging results, type of surgery, type of adjuvant therapy, findings on histologic evaluation, and outcome.

Results—36 (51.4%), 16 (22.9%), 13 (18.6%), and 1 (1.4%) of 70 dogs had tumors classified as stage I, II, III, and IV, respectively; tumor stage could not be determined for 4 (5.7%) dogs because of the lack of tumor size information. Fifty-one (72.9%) dogs had tumors completely excised. Twenty-nine (41.4%) dogs received adjuvant therapy. Median PFI and ST were 508 and 723 days, respectively. Thirty-two (45.7%) dogs had disease progression. Significant associations with PFI or ST were found for administration of adjuvant therapy, presence of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, higher tumor stage (III or IV), increased tumor size (> 3 cm), and sexually intact female dogs. Administration of adjuvant treatment was associated with a 130% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.0) of disease progression; the presence of metastases at the time of diagnosis was associated with a 281% increased hazard (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.5 to 9.6) of death.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that dogs with oral melanoma can have a long PFI and ST after resection with wide margins.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To assess survival time in dogs that underwent treatment for stage III osteosarcoma and evaluate factors affecting survival.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—90 dogs with stage III osteosarcoma.

Procedures—Records in the osteosarcoma database at the Animal Cancer Center at Colorado State University from 1985 to 2004 were searched for dogs with metastatic disease at the time of evaluation. Dogs were included in the study if they had metastasis to any site and if treatment was initiated. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, and the influences of age, sex, breed, primary tumor site, metastatic sites, and treatment on outcome were analyzed via log-rank analysis.

Results—Median survival time was 76 days, with a range of 0 to 1,583 days. No significant differences in survival times on the basis of age, sex, breed, or primary site were observed. Breeds and primary tumor sites were typical of those usually associated with osteosarcoma in dogs. Dogs treated palliatively with radiation therapy and chemotherapy had a significantly longer survival time (130 days) than dogs in all other treatment groups. Dogs treated with surgery alone had a significantly shorter survival time (3 days) than dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy (78 days). Dogs with bone metastases had a longer survival time than dogs with soft tissue metastases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of dogs with stage III osteosarcoma can result in various survival times. Dogs with metastasis to bone and dogs that were treated palliatively with radiation and chemotherapy had the longest survival times.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association