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  • Author or Editor: Dylan J. DeProspero x
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To characterize the patterns associated with Lorenz plots (LPs) or Poincaré plots derived from the Holter recordings of dogs with various cardiac rhythms.


77 dogs with 24-hour Holter recordings.


A 1-hour period from the Holter recordings from each of 20 dogs without arrhythmias and from each of 57 dogs with arrhythmias (10 each with supraventricular premature complexes, complex supraventricular ectopy, ventricular premature complexes, complex ventricular ectopy, and atrial fibrillation, and 7 with high-grade second-degree atrioventricular block) were used to generate the LPs. Patterns depicted in the LPs were described.


Arrhythmia-free Holter recordings yielded LPs with a Y-shaped pattern and variable silent zones. Recordings with single premature complexes yielded LPs with double side and triple side lobes. Complex ectopy was denoted by dots clustered in the lower left corner of the LPs. The LPs of recordings with atrial fibrillation had fan patterns consistent with a nonlinear relationship between atrial electrical impulses and atrioventricular nodal conduction. The recordings with atrioventricular block yielded LPs with island patterns consistent with variable atrioventricular nodal conduction.


Distinct LP patterns were identified for common cardiac rhythms of dogs, supportive of nonrandom mechanisms as the cause of most rhythms. Visual interpretation of an LP generated from a Holter recording may aid in determining the arrhythmia type and understanding the arrhythmia's mechanism in dogs and other species.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research