Objective—To compare blood glucose concentrations
obtained using a point-of-care (POC) analyzer, 5 portable
blood glucose meters (PBGM), and a color reagent test
strip with concentrations obtained using a reference
method, and to compare glucose concentrations
obtained using fresh blood samples in the PBGM with
concentrations obtained using blood anticoagulated
with lithium heparin.
Sample Population—110 blood samples from 34
dogs; glucose concentration of the samples ranged
from 41 to 596 mg/dl.
Procedure—Logistic regression was used to compare
blood glucose concentrations obtained with the
various devices with reference method concentrations.
Ease of use was evaluated subjectively.
Percentage of times a clinical decision would have
been altered if results of each of these methods had
been used, rather than results of the reference
method, was calculated.
Results—For 3 of the PBGM, blood glucose concentrations
obtained with fresh blood were not significantly
different from concentrations obtained with
blood samples anticoagulated with lithium heparin.
None of the devices provided results statistically
equivalent to results of the reference method, but the
POC analyzer was more accurate than the others. For
some samples, reliance on results of the PBGM or
the color test strip would have resulted in erroneous
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although
commercially available PBGM and color test strips
provided blood glucose concentrations reasonably
close to those obtained with reference methods,
some devices were more accurate than others. Use
of results from these devices could lead to erroneous
clinical decisions in some cases. ( J Am Vet Med
Case Description—An approximately 5-year-old sexually intact male alpaca was evaluated because of a right-sided maxillary mass that had recurred after previous surgical debulking.
Clinical Findings—Clinical, radiographic, and CT examination revealed an approximately 1.5-cm-diameter soft tissue mass associated with expansile osteolysis of the maxillary alveolar bone, beginning at the level of the right maxillary third premolar tooth extending caudally to the level of the rostral roots of the second molar tooth.
Treatment and Outcome—Right partial maxillectomy was performed, and histologic examination revealed an incompletely excised fibrosarcoma with osseous metaplasia. External beam radiation therapy to the tumor bed was initiated 1 month after surgery. Computerized planning was performed, and a total radiation dose of 48 Gy was prescribed in eleven 4.4-Gy fractions. Follow-up CT evaluations 6 and 58 weeks after radiation therapy was completed revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. No clinical evidence of tumor recurrence was detected through 110 weeks after radiation therapy.
Clinical Relevance—The oral fibrosarcoma in the alpaca described here was successfully treated with surgical excision and adjuvant radiation therapy, resulting in excellent quality of life of the treated animal.
Objective—To evaluate samarium Sm 153 lexidronam (153Sm-EDTMP) as a treatment option for dogs with bony tumors of the skull.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Dogs with multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) or osteosarcoma (OSA) of the skull.
Procedures—Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital records from the Universities of Missouri and Florida from 1986 to 2006 were searched for dogs with primary skull tumors treated with 153Sm-EDTMP.
Results—25 dogs were initially evaluated, with 5 dogs subsequently excluded because of inadequate follow-up or unrelated death. Seven OSAs and 13 MLOs were diagnosed. Tumors involved the occipital and frontal bones (n = 10), zygomatic arch and maxilla region (6), palate (3), and mandible (1). No clinically important adverse effects related to 153Sm-EDTMP treatment were documented. Of the 20 dogs evaluated 21 days after injection with 153Sm-EDTMP, 4 had subjective improvement, 13 had progressive disease, and 3 had insufficient follow-up. On the basis of radiographic findings, metastasis was suspected in 1 dog; 16 dogs had no metastasis evident, and medical records were insufficient for 3 dogs. Survival time, defined as the 153Sm-EDTMP injection date to the date of death, ranged from 3 to 1,314 days (median, 144 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The subjective improvement in 4 patients and lack of clinical evidence of adverse effects suggested that 153Sm-EDTMP injection may be an option for the treatment of dogs with MLO or OSA of the skull when other treatments have failed or surgery is not possible.
Objective—To determine the association between
cancer chemotherapy and serum canine distemper
virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and rabies virus
antibody titers in tumor-bearing dogs.
Animals—21 client-owned dogs with various malignancies
and 16 client-owned dogs with lymphoma.
Procedure—In study A, serum antibody titers were
measured by use of hemagglutination inhibition (CPV
titers) or serum neutralization (CDV titers) before and
at least 1 month after initiation of chemotherapy.
Baseline values were compared with values obtained
from a control population of 122 healthy dogs seen for
routine revaccination. Titers were considered protective
at ≥ 1:96 for CDV and ≥ 1:80 for CPV.
In study B, serum IgG titers were measured by
use of immunofluorescent assay (CDV and CPV titers)
and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT,
rabies titers) at baseline and again at weeks 5, 8, and
24 of a standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment
of lymphoma. An IgG titer of ≥ 1:50 was considered
protective for CPV and CDV. An RFFIT titer of ≥ 0.5
U/ml was considered protective for rabies virus.
Results—Significant changes were not detected in
CDV, CPV, and rabies virus titers following chemotherapy
in tumor-bearing dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that established immunity to CDV, CPV, and
rabies virus from previous vaccination is not significantly
compromised by standard chemotherapy used
to treat tumor-bearing dogs. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate the veterinary version of the
bladder tumor antigen (V-BTA) test as a screening test
for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the lower urinary
tract of dogs.
Animals—229 client-owned dogs.
Procedure—Urine samples from dogs were shipped
overnight to a single laboratory to facilitate testing
within 48 hours of collection by use of the V-BTA rapid
latex agglutination urine dipstick test. Groups of dogs
included the following: 1) dogs with TCC of the lower
urinary tract, 2) healthy control dogs, 3) unhealthy
control dogs with non-TCC urinary tract disease, and
4) unhealthy control dogs without urinary tract disease.
Test sensitivity and specificity were calculated
by use of standard methods. Logistic models were
developed to assess the effect of disease status, test
conditions, urine composition, and signalment on the
performance of the V-BTA test.
Results—A total of 229 urine samples were analyzed,
including 48 from dogs with suspected (n = 3) or confirmed
(45) TCC. Test sensitivities were 88, 87, and
85% for all dogs with (suspected and confirmed) TCC,
dogs with confirmed TCC at any site, and dogs with
confirmed TCC of the urinary bladder, respectively.
Test specificities were 84, 41, and 86% for healthy
control dogs, unhealthy control dogs with non-TCC
urinary tract disease, and unhealthy control dogs
without urinary tract disease, respectively. The test
performed slightly better on centrifuged urine samples
than on uncentrifuged urine samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Our results
indicate that the V-BTA test is useful in screening for
urinary tract TCC in dogs. (Am J Vet Res
Objective—To evaluate safety and efficacy of LDI-100, a preparation containing human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), in the treatment of dogs with mast cell tumors and to compare results with those from a control group receiving single-agent vinblastine.
Animals—95 dogs with measurable grade II or III mast cell tumors.
Procedures—Dogs were randomized to receive either LDI-100 (1.35 ng of BCG and 2 units of hCG, SC, q 24 h) or vinblastine (2 mg/m2, IV, q 1 wk) for 6 weeks. Tumors were measured at baseline and day 42, and dogs were monitored for signs of toxicosis. Clinical performance scores were recorded at each visit. Differences in host factors (sex, weight, and age), clinical performance score, tumor response, and adverse events were analyzed.
Results—46 dogs received LDI-100, and 49 dogs received vinblastine. No significant differences were found between the 2 treatment groups with regard to host factors or clinical performance score. Tumor response (≥50% reduction) rates were similar between the LDI-100 and vinblastine group (28.6% and 11.7%, respectively). Dogs in the LDI-100 group had significantly less neutropenia than the vinblastine group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—hCG and BCG have immunomodulatory and antitumor effects against a variety of malignancies in humans and dogs. In this study, LDI-100 provided clinical responses comparable to single-agent vinblastine chemotherapy but without myelosuppression. LDI-100 is a promising new agent that should be further investigated for multimodality therapy of mast cell tumors in dogs.