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Objective—To determine whether povidone iodine ointment or 2 forms of silver sulfadiazine applied topically to wounds of the distal aspect of the limbs in horses affect the rate of second intention healing and to evaluate the additional influence of bandaging with these antimicrobials on granulation tissue formation.

Animals—6 healthy adult horses.

Procedure—Six standardized 2.5-cm2 skin wounds/horse were distributed between the dorsomedial surfaces of the metacarpi and metatarsi. One of the following 6 treatments was applied to each wound: 1% silver sulfadiazine cream with bandage, 1% silver sulfadiazine slow-release matrix with bandage, 1% silver sulfadiazine slow-release matrix without bandage, povidone-iodine ointment with bandage, untreated control with bandage, and untreated control without bandage. Wound area, granulation tissue area, and perimeter were measured by use of planimetry software applied to digital images. Exuberant granulation tissue was excised when present. Days until healing, rate of healing parameter, rate of contraction, and epithelialization were compared among wound treatment groups.

Results—Healing parameters and mean days to healing did not differ significantly among any of the wound treatment groups. Percentage wound contraction and rate of epithelialization were similar among wound treatments. All bandaged wounds produced exuberant granulation tissue, which was surgically excised; none of the unbandaged wounds produced exuberant granulation tissue.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—When exuberant granulation tissue is removed, rates of epithelialization and wound contraction were not different among wound treatment groups, whether bandaged or unbandaged. Topical application of 1% silver sulfadiazine slow-release matrix on unbandaged wounds induced the same result as medications applied beneath bandages, but without exuberant granulation tissue formation. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:88–92)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the vascular distribution pattern of contrast medium during intraosseous regional perfusion (IORP) of the distal portion of the equine forelimb.

Sample Population—13 cadaveric forelimbs from 12 horses without forelimb diseases.

Procedures—Serial lateromedial radiographic views were taken of the distal portion of 10 heparinized cadaveric forelimbs at 0, 1, 2, 6, 15, and 30 minutes during IORP of the third metacarpal bone (MCIII) by use of iodinated contrast medium and a tourniquet placed over the proximal portion of MCIII. Vascular regions of interest (ROI) were created for each radiograph. Reviewers identified the presence or absence of contrast medium–induced opacified vessels in all ROI on radiographs. This information was summarized to identify vessel-filling patterns over time. Vessel identification was verified by use of computed tomography angiography and latex perfusion studies on the distal portion of separate cadaveric forelimbs.

Results—During IORP, contrast medium filled the medullary cavity of the MCIII; exited via transcortical vessels; and diffused distally to the remaining arteries and veins of the forelimb, distal to the tourniquet. Maximum vessel and soft tissue opacification occurred in most specimens at 6 and 30 minutes, respectively. Serial radiography vessel patterns matched those of computed tomography images and dissected specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IORP provides a repeatable pattern of vascular distribution in the distal portion of the equine forelimb. To our knowledge, our study provides the first documentation of arterial perfusion by use of IORP; results of previous reports indicate that IORP delivers medications to only the venous vessels of the perfused forelimb.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research