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  • Author or Editor: Donald H. Lein x
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Objective—To determine proportions of cats in which feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) was diagnosed on an annual, monthly, and regional basis and identify unique characteristics of cats with FIP.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Records of all feline accessions to veterinary medical teaching hospitals (VMTH) recorded in the Veterinary Medical Data Base between January 1986 and December 1995 and of all feline accessions for necropsy or histologic examination at 4 veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

Procedure—Proportions of total and new feline accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded were calculated. To identify characteristics of cats with FIP, cats with FIP were compared with the next cat examined at the same institution (control cats).

Results—Approximately 1 of every 200 new feline and 1 of every 300 total feline accessions at VMTH in North America and approximately 1 of every 100 accessions at the diagnostic laboratories represented cats with FIP. Cats with FIP were significantly more likely to be young, purebred, and sexually intact males and significantly less likely to be spayed females and discharged alive than were control cats. The proportion of new accessions for which a diagnosis of FIP was recorded did not vary significantly among years, months, or regions of the country.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that FIP continues to be a clinically important disease in North America and that sexually intact male cats may be at increased risk, and spayed females at reduced risk, for FIP. The high prevalence of FIP and lack of effective treatment emphasizes the importance of preventive programs, especially in catteries. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1111–1115)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objectives—To differentiate early (1 to 8 days) from late (9 to 14 days) inflammatory phases and assess relationships between leukocyte phenotype and bacterial recovery in cows with Staphylococcus aureus-induced mastitis.

Animals—10 first-lactation Holstein cows.

Procedure—Blood and milk samples were collected from 4 or 6 cows before and after intramammary infusion of sterile broth or S aureus, respectively. Flow cytometric expression of CD3 and CD11b antigens on blood and milk leukocytes, leukocyte differential counts, bacterial counts in milk, and somatic cell counts were determined longitudinally.

Results—Density of CD3 molecules decreased on blood lymphocytes and increased on milk lymphocytes after infusion of bacteria. Density of CD11b molecules on lymphocytes and phagocytes and percentage of CD11b+ lymphocytes in milk increased significantly after infusion; maximum values were achieved during the early inflammatory phase. Density of CD3 and CD11b molecules on milk lymphocytes and macrophages, respectively, 1 day after inoculation were negatively correlated with bacterial recovery on day 1 and days 9 to 14, respectively. Density of CD11b molecules on milk macrophages and the ratios of phagocyte to lymphocyte percentages and polymorphonuclear cell to macrophage percentages in milk differentiated the early from the late inflammatory phase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Activation of bovine mammary gland macrophages and T cells in response to intramammary infusion of S aureus was associated with an inability to culture this bacterium from milk. Identification of specific inflammatory phases of S aureus-induced mastitis in cows may allow for the design of more efficacious treatment and control programs. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1840–1851)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objectives—To assess automated ribotyping for characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and to identify their type prevalence and geographic distribution.

Sample Population—39 human and 56 ruminant P aeruginosa isolates.

Procedures—Isolates were identified by use of bacteriologic techniques and automated PvuII-based ribotyping. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was tested in vitro. Data were analyzed for index of discrimination; prevalence ratio; geographic distribution of ribotypes found only in humans, only in cows, or only in goats (single-host ribotypes); and geographic distribution of ribotypes found in humans and ruminants (multihost ribotypes).

Results—All isolates were typeable (45 ribotypes, 35 single-host ribotypes). Ribotyping index of discrimination was 0.976. More isolates (45.3%) than expected yielded multihost ribotypes (22% of all ribotypes). Although 8.6% of single-host ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates, 60% of multihost ribotypes were found in 4 or more isolates. Ninety percent of multihost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas, whereas 3.0% of singlehost ribotypes were isolated from different geographic areas. All ruminant isolates were susceptible to gentamicin and polymyxin B. In contrast, antibiogram profiles differed for human isolates from different geographic areas. Susceptibility to antimicrobials differentiated 6 isolates not distinguished by ribotyping.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Automated ribotyping with PvuII discriminated more isolates than in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. In combination, both tests provided more information than either test alone. Given the greater prevalence and geographic distribution of multihost ribotypes, immunocompromised humans and lactating ruminants may have a greater risk for disease if exposed to multihost P aeruginosa ribotypes, compared with single-host ribotypes. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:864–870)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To develop a method to experimentally induce Borrelia burgdorferi infection in young adult dogs.

Animals—22 healthy Beagles.

Procedure—All dogs were verified to be free of borreliosis. Twenty 6-month-old dogs were exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected adult ticks and treated with dexamethasone for 5 consecutive days. Two dogs not exposed to ticks were treated with dexamethasone and served as negative-control dogs. Clinical signs, results of microbial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, immunologic responses, and gross and histologic lesions were evaluated 9 months after tick exposure.

Results—Predominant clinical signs were episodic pyrexia and lameness in 12 of 20 dogs. Infection with B burgdorferi was detected in microbial cultures of skin biopsy specimens and various tissues obtained during necropsy in 19 of 20 dogs and in all 20 dogs by use of a PCR assay. All 20 exposed dogs seroconverted and developed chronic nonsuppurative arthritis. Three dogs also developed mild focal meningitis, 1 dog developed mild focal encephalitis, and 18 dogs developed perineuritis or rare neuritis. Control dogs were seronegative, had negative results for microbial culture and PCR testing, and did not develop lesions.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of this technique successfully induced borreliosis in young dogs. Dogs with experimentally induced borreliosis may be useful in evaluating vaccines, chemotherapeutic agents, and the pathogenesis of borreliosisinduced arthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1104–1112)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research