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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Cutaneous arterial blood supply to the tail was evaluated in 12 dogs. Subtraction radiography of internal iliac artery and distal aorta angiography in 3 of these dogs was used to determine arterial blood supply to the tail from the median sacral and lateral caudal arteries. Dissection of the tail in 8 canine cadavers revealed bilateral subcutaneous location of lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries contributed to the reconstruction of a large caudodorsal cutaneous defect in a dog. An axial pattern flap based on the lateral caudal arteries following tail amputation may be indicated to aid reconstruction of large caudodorsal cutaneous defects of the trunk in dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Nineteen axial pattern skin flaps were used in 16 dogs and cats to provide skin for repair of extensive cutaneous defects. Retrospective evaluation of medical records was used to determine percentage flap survival, postoperative complications, and long-term outcome of axial pattern skin flaps. The most common indication for use of axial pattern flaps was to augment wound closure following tumor resection (n = 7). Other indications included trauma (n = 5), chronic nonhealing wounds (n = 4), urine-induced cellulitis (n = 1), idiopathic dermal necrosis (n = 1), and chronic lymphoplasmocytic dermatitis (n = 1). Mean flap survival (± sd) was 96% (± 8). Postoperative complications included wound drainage (n = 15), partial dehiscence of the sutured flap (n = 7), distal flap necrosis (n = 6), infection (n = 3), edema (n = 3), and seroma formation (n = 2). After a median follow-up time of 5 months, evaluation of animals indicated that surgery provided successful wound reconstruction with good cosmetic results. Reconstruction of large cutaneous defects is facilitated by axial pattern flap application regardless of cause of wound. Postoperative complications are common but amenable to standard wound management techniques such as drain placement and surgical debridement of devitalized distal flap skin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in catheterized dogs that had intervertebral disk disease (IVDD) or disease other than IVDD and compare bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results for catheterized and noncatheterized dogs with UTIs.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—147 catheterized dogs (105 with IVDD and 42 with other diseases) and 99 noncatheterized dogs with UTIs.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, clinical problem, duration of urinary tract catheterization, administration of drugs, and urine bacterial culture and susceptibility testing results.

Results—Forty-two percent (44/105) of dogs with IVDD and 55% (23/42) of dogs with other diseases had UTIs; this difference was not significant. For catheterized dogs, the odds of UTI were increased by 20% for each year increase in age, 27% for each day increase in duration of catheterization, and 454% with antimicrobial administration. Escherichia coli and Proteus spp were more frequently isolated from noncatheterized dogs, whereas Enterobacter spp and Staphylococcus spp were more frequently isolated from catheterized dogs. There was no significant difference in frequency of 1, 2, or 3 isolates between groups. Proportions of antimicrobials to which the most frequently isolated bacteria were resistant were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that urinary tract catheterization is a reasonable alternative for management of dogs with urinary bladder dysfunction, but that duration of catheterization should be minimized and indiscriminate antimicrobial administration to dogs with indwelling urinary catheters should be avoided.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

The biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties of biocompatible osteoconductive polymer (bop), a synthetic implant, were evaluated. Bilateral oval cortical defects (1 × 2 cm) were made in the lateral subtrochanteric area of the proximal portion of the femur in 16 dogs that later were treated with bop fiber (n = 16) or autogenous cancellous bone (n = 11), or were not treated (n = 5). The bop block was attached extraperiosteally to the proximal portion of the humerus in 6 dogs. Radiographic assessment of surgery sites was performed at 4-week intervals, and histologic evaluation was performed at 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after surgery. Radiographic signs of bone healing were not observed in defects treated with bop fiber. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated had radiographic signs of progressive bone ingrowth. Radiographic evidence of periosteal new bone formation near control and bop-treated defects was observed 4 weeks after surgery; increased periosteal reaction was associated with bop fiber. This new bone had resorbed by week 24, except bone adjacent to bop fiber, where continued periosteal reaction was apparent. Histologic evidence of bone formation was observed extending to, but not incorporating, bop fibers. The bop fibers became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, and fibrovascular connective tissue infiltrated between and into bop fibers, but minimal bone formation incorporated the bop material during the follow-up period. During that time, active periosteal new bone formation was evident adjacent to the bop fibers. Defects treated with cancellous bone or not treated healed by ingrowth of cancellous bone during the first 12 weeks after surgery and by reformation of the lateral cortical wall by week 24. The bop blocks became surrounded by a fibrous capsule, but connective tissue or bone ingrowth into bop blocks was not observed. Results indicate that bop is not osteoconductive within a 6-month time frame when used in subtrochanteric femoral defects or when placed extraperiosteally on the proximal portion of the humerus of clinically normal dogs.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association